Fertilizer research

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 135–142 | Cite as

Response of dryland wheat to supplemental irrigation and rate and method of N application

  • K. S. Sandhu
  • A. S. Sidhu


A field experiment was conducted on dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum PBW 175) for four years on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the effect of supplemental irrigation in combination with rate and method of fertilizer N application. The experiment was a split-split plot design consisting of three irrigation treatments (rainfed, one preseeding irrigation and one preseeding + one postseeding irrigation) in the main plot: four fertilizer N rates (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1) in the sub-plot and two methods of N application (drilled at the time of seeding and broadcast before preseeding irrigation) in the sub-sub plots. The crop response to supplementary irrigation(s) depended on the growing season water deficits. Broadcasting fertilizer N before preseeding irrigation resulted in the transporting of 39 per cent of the applied N to the sub-soil (20-60 cm depth). This resulted in better crop performance, particularly under low water supplies. A step wise regression was developed that showed water supplies beyond 26 cm of available water plus irrigation/rainfall from seeding to 45 days after were not productive and its distribution between pre- and post-fertilizer application periods affected water and applied N efficiencies. For higher crop yields under low water supply the fertilizer N broadcast before preseeding irrigation is suggested.

Key words

fertilizer N broadcast before preseeding irrigation N drill nitrogen - water interaction water supply pattern-N method - yield relations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aggarwal GC & Sidhu AS (1992) Efficiency of urea application with presowing irrigation in wheat on sandy loam and loamy sand soils. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 40:44–48Google Scholar
  2. Alston AM (1980) Response of wheat to deep placement of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on a soil high in phosphorus in the surface layer. Aust J Agric Res 31: 13–24Google Scholar
  3. Benbi DK, Singh Ranjodh, Singh G, Sandhu KS, Singh R & Saggar S (1993) Response of dryland wheat to fertilizer nitrogen in relation to stored water, rainfall and residual farm yard manure. Fert Res 36:63–70Google Scholar
  4. Bhardwaj RBL & Wright BC (1967) New agronomy for dwarf wheats. Indian Farming 17(5): 34–39Google Scholar
  5. Black CA (ed) (1965) Methods of soil analysis. Agron 9, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological Properties. pp 1179-1206Google Scholar
  6. Campbell CA, Zentner RP, Selles F, Mc Conkey BG & Dyck FB (1993) Nitrogen management for spring wheat grown annually on zero-tillage: Yields and nitrogen use efficiency. Agron J 85 : 107–114Google Scholar
  7. Chauhan DS, Hukeri SB & Dastane NG (1970) Intensive vs extensive irrigation. Indian J Agron 15: 46–48Google Scholar
  8. Cheema SS, Dhingra KK & Gill GS (1973) Effect of missing irrigation at different stages of growth on dwarf wheat. J Res 10: 41–44 (Punjab Agric Univ Ludhiana, India)Google Scholar
  9. Cochran WG & Cox GM (1957) Experimental Design. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. Gomez KA & Gomez AA (1976) Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research. IRRI Los Banos, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  11. Jackson TL, Halvorson AD & Tucker BB (1983) Soil fertility in dryland agriculture. In: Dryland Agriculture, Agronomy 23, pp 297–332 Am Soc Agron, Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS & Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available P extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA, Circ No 939. USDA, Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Olson RA (1984) Nitrogen use in dryland farming under semiarid conditions. In: Hauck RD (ed) Nitrogen in Crop Production pp 335–347. Am Soc Agron Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  14. Prihar SS, Sandhu KS, Singh M, Verma HN & Singh R (1989) Response of dryland wheat to small supplemental irrigation and fertilizer nitrogen in submontane Punjab. Fert Res 21: 23–28Google Scholar
  15. Rhoads FM (1983) Nitrogen or water stress - their inter-relationships. In: Hauck RD (ed) Nitrogen in Crop Production, pp 307–317 Am Soc Agron Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Sandhu KS, Benbi DK & Prihar SS (1996) Dryland wheat yields in relation to soil organic carbon, applied nitrogen, stored water and rainfall distribution. Fert Res (In press)Google Scholar
  17. Sidhu AS & Sandhu KS (1995) Response of mustard (Brassica juncea L.)to method of N application and timing of first irrigation. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 43:331–334Google Scholar
  18. Singh NT, Dhaliwal GS, Sidhu AS, Aggarwal GC & Singh R (1984) Efficiency of N application with presowing irrigation versus other methods. In: Nitrogen in Soils and Fertilizers. Bull No 13, pp 263–267. Indian Soc Soil Sci, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Singh R Singh Y Prihar SS & Singh P (1975) Effect of N fertilization on yield and water use efficiency of dryland winter wheat as affected by stored water and rainfall. Agron J 67:599–603Google Scholar
  20. Walkley A & Black CA (1934) An examination of the degtjariff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37: 29–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Sandhu
    • 1
  • A. S. Sidhu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SoilsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations