Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine

, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp 1256–1262 | Cite as

Routes of tetanus toxin entrance into the central nervous system and some problems of experimental tetanus pathogenesis

Communication III. Experiments on monkeys and dogs
  • G. N. Kryzhanovskii
  • L. A. Pevnitskii
  • V. N. Grafova
  • A. A. Polgar
Pathological Physiology and General Pathology


As shown by experiments on monkeys (table 1) and dogs (table 2), the main and direct route of passage of the tetanus toxin from the muscles into the spinal cord are the anterior spinal roots. This result coincides completely with the data of previous investigations on albino rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and cats [4,5,6]. After blocking the circulatory route of spread of the toxin by means of antiserum, the administration of toxin into the muscles of the posterior extremity causes a fatal ascending tetanus in dogs (Fig.2); by the time of the animal's death the antitoxin may circulate in the animal's blood (table 3). Thus, the spread of the toxin with the blood is not a required condition for the development of general fatal tetanus. However, this factor plays an important role in determining the clinical form and the outcome of the disease. Both in the monkeys (Fig.1, d, f) and in dogs (Fig. 2, f, e) there is present a phenomenon of generalization of excitation in the central nervous system upon stimulation of the extremity into which the toxin has been introduced; this phenomenon is characteristic of the ascending general tetanus and was described by the authors earlier (3). A discussion is given on the clinical forms of the disease and the route of the tetanus spread of toxin in connection with the current concepts on the pathogenesis of tetanus.


Central Nervous System Spinal Cord Previous Investigation Tetanus Current Concept 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    D. A. Golikov, Chen. Zapiski Leningradsk. un-ta. Seriya Biol. No. 16 (1949), p. 6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. A. Zhdanov, General Anatomy and Physiology of the Lymphatic System [in Russian] (Leningrad, 1952), p. 186.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. N. Kryzhanovskii, Byull. Éksper. Biol. i Med. No. 12 (1957), p. 43; No. 11 (1959), p. 38.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. N. Kryzhanovskii, Byull. Éksper. Biol. i Med. No. 1 (1960), p. 42.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. N. Kryzhanovskii, L. A. Pevnitskii, et al., Byull. Éksper. Biol. i Med. No. 3 (1961), p. 42.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. N. Kryzhanovskii, L. A. Pevnitskii, et al., Byull. Éksper. Biol. i Med. No. 8 (1961), p. 31.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. I. Lebedinskaya, Arkh. Biol. Nauk.41, No. 3 (1936), p. 115.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. J. Abel, Science, Vol. 79 (1934), p. 121.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. J. Abel, et al., Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. Vol. 56 (1935), p. 84, 317; Vol. 57, p. 343; Vol. 59 (1936), p. 307 Vol. 62 (1938) p. 522, 610; Vol. 63, p. 373.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. H. Baylis, J. Mackintosh, and R. S. Morgan, et al., J. Path. Bact. Vol. 64 (1952), p. 33.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. B. Brierley and E. J. Field, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. Vol. 12 (1949), p. 86.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Bromeis, Dtsch. Z. Chir. (1938), Bd. 250, S. 402; (1939), Bd. 252, S. 285.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Defrise, Arch. Gen. Neurol. Psichiat. Vol. 11 (1930), p. 102.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Doerr, S. Seidenberg, and Fl. Magrassi, Z. Hyg. (1936), Bd. 118, S. 92.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. M. Firor, A. Lamont, and H. B. Shurnacker, Ann. Surg. Vol. 111 (1940), p. 246.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    U. Friedemann, A. Hollander, and I. M. Tarlov, J. Immunol. Vol. 40 (1941), p. 325.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Marie and V. Morax, Ann. Inst. Pasteur, No. 11 (1902), p. 818.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Meyer and F. Ransom, Arch. Exp. Path. Pharmak (1903), Bd. 49, S. 369.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Penitschika, Arch. Klin. Chir. (1953), Bd. 274, S. 435.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. G. Roofe, Science, Vol. 105 (1947), p. 180.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. H. Teale and D. Embleton, J. Path. Bact. Vol. 23 (1919–1920), p. 50.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. P. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. Vol. 46 (1953), p. 319.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Idem, Pharmacol. Rev. Vol. 7 (1955), p. 434.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. A. Wright, R. S. Morgan, and G. P. Wright, Brit. J. Exp. Path. Vol. 32 (1951), p. 169.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Consultants Bureau Enterprises, Inc. 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. N. Kryzhanovskii
    • 1
  • L. A. Pevnitskii
    • 1
  • V. N. Grafova
    • 1
  • A. A. Polgar
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Infections Pathology of the Institute of Normal and Pathologic PhysiologyAMN SSSRMoscow

Personalised recommendations