Influence of skin temperature distribution on thermal sensation in a cool environment

  • Ruth Nielsen
  • Bodil Nielsen
Article

Summary

Thermal sensation and distribution of skin temperatures in persons exercising at 36.5 W on a bicycle ergometer and resting in a cool environment (10‡ C) in two different clothings, one with the insulation mainly over the trunk (1.22 clo), and one with well insulated limbs (1.67 clo), were studied. Their general thermal sensations varied from slightly warm to slightly cool. The placing of the insulation had a decisive influence on skin temperature distribution, so that skin temperature was always high in well-insulated areas. When the insulation was placed over the limbs, a greater amount of heat was lost than if a similar insulation was placed on the trunk. Neither\(\bar T_{sk}\) nor skin temperature distribution correlated with general thermal sensation. Instead, mean body temperature seemed to be the determinant of general thermal sensation in these conditions. The best prediction of general thermal sensation was obtained by addingTre with a weighting factor of 0.8–0.9 and\(\bar T_{sk}\) with a weighting factor of 0.1–0.2.

Key words

Thermal sensation Cool conditions Clothed persons Skin temperature Mean body temperature 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bleichert A, Behling K (1973) Thermoregulatory behavior of man during rest and exercise. Pflügers Arch 338: 303–312Google Scholar
  2. Burton AC (1935) Human Calorimetry II. The average temperature of the tissues of the body. J Nutrition 9: 261–280Google Scholar
  3. Burton AC, Edholm OG (1955) Man in a cold environment. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Cabanac M, Cunnningham DJ, Stolwijk JAJ (1971) Thermoregulatory set point during exercise. A behavioral approach. J Comp Physiol Psychol 76: 94–102Google Scholar
  5. Crawshaw LI, Nadel ER, Stolwijk JAJ, Stamford BA (1975) Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation. Pflügers Arch 354: 19–27Google Scholar
  6. Enander A (1982) Perception of hand cooling during local cold air exposure at three different temperatures. Ergonomics 25: 351–361Google Scholar
  7. Fanger PO (1970) Thermal comfort — Analysis and applications in environmental engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Gagge AP, Winslow CEA, Herrington LP (1938) The influence of clothing on the physiological reactions of the human body to varying environmental temperatures. Am J Physiol 124: 30–50Google Scholar
  9. Gagge AP, Stolwijk JAJ, Hardy JD (1967) Comfort and thermal sensations and associated physiological responses at various ambient temperatures. Env Res 1: 1–20Google Scholar
  10. Gagge AP, Stolwijk JAJ, Saltin B (1969) Comfort and thermal sensations and associated physiological responses during exercise at various ambient temperatures. Env Res 2: 209–229Google Scholar
  11. Gonzales RR, Nishi Y (1976) Effect of cool environments on local thermal sensation, discomfort and clothing selection. ASHRAE Trans 82: 76–86Google Scholar
  12. Hanada K, Mihira K, Kamisasa H (1982) The effect of unevenly distributed thermal stimulation on the sensation of warmth and coolness. Appl Ergonomics 13: 49–53Google Scholar
  13. Hardy JD, DuBois EF (1938) Basal metabolism, radiation, convection and vaporization at temperatures of 22 to 35‡ C. J Nutrition 15: 477–497Google Scholar
  14. Hardy JD, Stolwijk JAJ (1966) Partitional calorimetric studies of man during exposures to thermal transients. J Appl Physiol 21: 1799–1806Google Scholar
  15. Mower GD (1976) Perceived intensity of peripheral thermal stimuli is independent of internal body temperature. J Comp Physiol Psychol 90: 1152–1155Google Scholar
  16. Nadel ER, Mitchell JW, Stolwijk JAJ (1973) Differential thermal sensitivity in the human skin. Pflügers Arch 340: 71–76Google Scholar
  17. Olesen BW, Fanger PO (1973) The skin temperature distribution for resting man in comfort. Arch Sci Physiol 27: A385-A393Google Scholar
  18. Olesen BW, Sliwinska E, Madsen TL, Fanger PO (1982) Effect of body posture and activity on the thermal insulation of clothing. Measurements by a movable thermal manikin. ASHRAE Trans 88: 791–799Google Scholar
  19. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, 1982 EditionGoogle Scholar
  20. Stevens JC, Marks LE (1979) Spatial summation of cold. Physiol Behav 22: 541–547Google Scholar
  21. Stevens JC, Stevens SS (1960) Warmth and cold: Dynamics of sensory intensity. J Exp Psychol 60: 183–192Google Scholar
  22. Vokac Z, KØpke V, Keül P (1971) Effect of cooling of peripheral parts of the body on general thermal comfort. Text Res J 41: 827–833Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Nielsen
    • 1
  • Bodil Nielsen
    • 1
  1. 1.August Krogh InstituteUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen ØDenmark

Personalised recommendations