Influence of physical training on blood pressure, plasma renin, angiotensin and catecholamines in patients with ischaemic heart disease

  • L. Vanhees
  • R. Fagard
  • P. Lijnen
  • E. Moerman
  • H. De Geest
  • A. Amery
Article

Summary

Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were trained for 3 months, three times a week. The effectiveness of the training programme was demonstrated by increases of 27% in peak oxygen uptake and 29% in exercise duration, and by a decrease in resting and submaximal heart rates. Blood pressure, however, was not significantly affected during the training period. At rest and at submaximal exercise plasma renin activity (PRA) was lower after training. Plasma angiotensin I concentration (PA I) and angiotensin II concentration (PA II) were not significantly affected. Plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), only measured at rest, was not significantly changed after the training period, while plasma norepinephrine (PNE) and epinephrine (PE) concentrations were significantly decreased, but only at high levels of exercise.

A reduced sympathetic tone after training, suggested by the lower heart rates and the tendency to a decrease in PNE, is a likely explanation for the decrease in PRA. However, despite this decrease, PA I, PA II, and PAC were not significantly changed after training; the reason for this disrepancy is unknown.

Key words

Physical training Exercise Blood pressure Renin Angiotensin Catecholamines 

References

  1. Bergmeyer HN (1974) Methods of enzymatic analysis, vol III. Academic Press, New York, pp 1464–1472Google Scholar
  2. Bjernulf A (1973) Haemodynamic aspects of physical training after myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 548: 1–50Google Scholar
  3. Clausen JP, Larsen OA, Trap-Jensen J (1969) Physical training in the management of coronary artery disease. Circulation 40: 143–154Google Scholar
  4. Cobb FR, Williams S, McEwan P, Jones RH, Coleman RE, Wallace AG (1982) Effects of exercise training on ventricular function in patients with recent myocardial infarction. Circulation 66: 100–108Google Scholar
  5. Cooksey J, Reilly P, Brown S, Bomze H, Cryer PE (1978) Exercise training and plasma catecholamines in patients with ischemic heart disease. Am J Cardiol 42: 372–376Google Scholar
  6. Cousineau D, Ferguson RJ, de Champlain J, Gauthier P, CÔté P, Bourassa M (1977) Catecholamines in coronary sinus during exercise in man before and after training. J Appl Physiol 43: 802–806Google Scholar
  7. Detry JM, Rousseau M, Vandenbroucke G, Kusumi F, Brasseur LA, Bruce AA (1971) Increased arteriovenous oxygen difference after physical training in coronary heart disease. Circulation 44: 109–118Google Scholar
  8. Detry JM, Rousseau MF, Brasseur LA (1975) Early hemodynamic adaptations to physical training in patients with healed myocardial infarction. Eur J Cardiol 2: 307–313Google Scholar
  9. Ehsani AA, Martin WH, Heath GW, Coyle EF (1982) Cardiac effects of prolonged and intense exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 50: 246–254Google Scholar
  10. Fagard R, Amery A, Reybrouck T, Lijnen P, Moerman E, Bogaert M, De Schaepdryver A (1977) Effects of angiotensin antagonism on hemodynamics, renin, and catecholamines during exercise. J Appl Physiol 43: 440–444Google Scholar
  11. Fagard R, M'Buyamba JR, Staessen J, Vanhees L, Amery A (1984a) Physical activity and blood pressure. In: BirkenhÄger WH, Reid JL, Bulpitt CJ (eds) Handbook of hypertension, Series, vol 6: The epidemiology of hypertension, [in press]Google Scholar
  12. Fagard R, Grauwels R, Groeseneken D, Lijnen P, Staessen J, Vanhees L, Amery A (1984b) Plasma levels of renin angiotensin II and 6-keto-prostaglandin F in endurance athletes. [in press]Google Scholar
  13. Fagard R, Lijnen P, Amery A (1984c) The pressor effect of exogenous angiotensin II is diminished during dynamic exercise. J Hypertension [in press]Google Scholar
  14. Fyhrquist F, Puutula L (1978) Faster radioimmunoassay of angiotensin at 37‡ C. Clin Chem 24: 115–118Google Scholar
  15. Frick MH, Katila M, Sjögren AL (1971) Cardiac function and physical training after myocardial infarction. In: Larsen, Malmberg (eds) Physical fitness and coronary heart disease. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 43–47Google Scholar
  16. Geyssant A, Geelen G, Denis Ch, Allevard AM, Vincent M, Jarsaillon E, Bizollen CA, Lacour JR, Gharib C (1981) Plasma vasopressin, renin activity and aldosterone: effect of exercise and training. Eur J Appl Physiol 46: 21–30Google Scholar
  17. Greenleaf JE, Sciaroffa D, Shvartz E, Keil LC, Brock PJ (1981) Exercise training hypotension: implications for plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin. J Appl Physiol 51: 298–305Google Scholar
  18. Hartley LH, Mason JW, Hogan RP, Jones LG, Kotchen TA, Mougey EH, Wherry FE, Pennington LL, Ricketts PT (1972) Multiple hormonal responses to graded exercise in relation to physical training. J Appl Physiol 33: 602–606Google Scholar
  19. Kasch FW, Boyer JL (1969) Changes in maximum work capacity from six months training in patients with ischemic heart disease. Med Sci Sports 1: 156–159Google Scholar
  20. Kirk RE (1982) Experimental design. 2nd ed., Brooks/Cole Pu. Co., Belmont, USA, pp 489–496Google Scholar
  21. Kotchen T, Hartley L, Rice T, Margey E, Jones L, Mason JW (1971) Renin, norepinephrine and epinephrine responses to graded exercise. J Appl Physiol 31: 178–184Google Scholar
  22. Lijnen PJ, Amery AK, Fagard RH (1978a) Endogenous angiotensin I concentration in human plasma. J Lab Clin Med 92: 353–362Google Scholar
  23. Lijnen PJ, Amery AK, Fagard RH, Katz FH (1978b) Radioimmunoassay of angiotensin II in unextracted plasma. Clin Chim Acta 88: 403–412Google Scholar
  24. Lijnen P, Amery A, Fagard R, Corvol P (1978c) Direct radioimmunoassay of plasma aldosterone in normal subjects. Clin Chim Acta 84: 305–314Google Scholar
  25. M'Buyamba-Kabangu JR, Fagard R, Lijnen P, Amery A (1984) Relationship between plasma renin activity and physical fitness in normal subjects. [in press]Google Scholar
  26. McCrimmon DR, Cunningham DA, Rechnitzen PA, Griffiths J (1976) Effect of training on plasma catecholamines in post myocardial infarction patients. Med Sci Sports 8: 152–156Google Scholar
  27. Melin B, Eclache JP, Geelen G, Annat G, Allevard AM, Jarsaillon E, Zebidi A, Legros JJ, Gharib C (1980) Plasma AVP, neurophysin, renin activity, and aldosterone during submaximal exercise performed until exhaustion in trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 44: 141–151Google Scholar
  28. Moerman EJ, Bogaert MG, De Schaepdryver AF (1976) Estimation of plasma catecholamines in man. Clin Chim Acta 72: 89–96Google Scholar
  29. Oparil S, Haber E (1974) The renin-angiotensin system. N Engl J Med 291: 289–401Google Scholar
  30. Passon PG, Peuler JD (1973) A simplified radiometric assay for plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine. Anal Biochem 51: 618–631Google Scholar
  31. Rousseau MF, Degré S, Messin R, Brasseur LA, Denolin H, Detry SM (1974) Hemodynamic effects of early physical training after acute myocardial infarction; comparison with a control untrained group. Eur J Cardiol 2: 39–45Google Scholar
  32. Sanne H (1973) Exercise tolerance and physical training in non-selected patients after myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 551: 7–110Google Scholar
  33. Skipka W, Böning D, Deck JA, Külpmann WR, Meurer KA (1979) Reduced aldosterone and sodium excretion in endurance-trained athletes before and during immersion. Eur J Appl Physiol 42: 255–261Google Scholar
  34. Vanhees L, Fagard R, Amery A (1982) Influence of beta-adrenergic blockade on effects of physical training in patients with ischemic heart disease. Br Heart J 48: 33–38Google Scholar
  35. Wilhelmsen L, Sanne H, Elmfeldt D, Grimby G, Tibblin G, Wedel H (1975) A controlled trial of physical training after myocardial infarction. Prev Med 4: 491–508Google Scholar
  36. Winder WW, Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Lane JA (1979) Training-induced changes in hormonal and metabolic responses to submaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 46: 766–771Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Vanhees
    • 1
  • R. Fagard
    • 1
  • P. Lijnen
    • 1
  • E. Moerman
    • 3
  • H. De Geest
    • 2
  • A. Amery
    • 1
  1. 1.Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation UnitUniversity of Leuven (K.U. Leuvan)Leuven
  2. 2.Cardiology Unit, Department of PathophysiologyUniversity of Leuven (K.U. Leuvan)Leuven
  3. 3.Heymans Institute of PharmacologyGhent University Medical School, Rijksuniversiteit van Gent (R.U.G.)GhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations