Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 270, Issue 8, pp 759–767 | Cite as

Steric repulsion of polyoxyethylene groups for emulsion stability

  • K. Tajima
  • M. Koshinuma
  • A. Nakamura
Original Contributions


Rapid coalescence was studied on liquid paraffin emulsion stabilized with a series of poly(oxyethylene) dodecyl ethers [C12H25 (EO),n=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] and of poly(oxyethylene) nonylphenyl ethers [C9H19Ф(EO) n ,n=2, 4, 5, 6, 12]. The turbidity of emulsion was measured as a function of the solution pHs at constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm−3.

As a result, it was found that the emulsions (which were formed with C12H25(EO) n surfactants having less than four oxyethylene groups, or with C9H19 Ф(EO) n surfactants having less than six oxyethylene groups) brought about rapid coalescence in the bulk pH between 2.0∼3.5, which corresponded to the zero point of charges for the emulsions of the present systems. According to the Tadros treatment for emulsion flocculation, the total flocculation potennual was estimated as a function of the distance relative to the number of oxyethelene groups in the surfactants. The critical coalescence energy was obtained as −343 ×10−19 J for the C12H25(EO) n surfactants and −2.14×10−19) J for the C9H19 Ф(EO) n surfactants. Furthermore, the formation of a hole for coalescence was estimated under the simple assumption that the coalescence was caused only by the energy dissipation.

Key words

Emulsionstability nonionicsurfactants ζpotential stericstabilization rapidcoalescence 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Vincent B (1974) Adv Colloid Interface Sci 4:193; Parsegian VA, Ninham BW (1971) J Colloid Interface Sci 37:332; Sato T, Ruch R (1980) In: Stabilization of Colloidal Dispersions by Polymer Adsorption. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 65–119Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lyklema J (1968) Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2:65Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kitahara A (1964) Hyomen 2:28Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herrington TM, Midmore BR, Sahi SS (1982) J Chem Soc Faraday Trans I 78:2711Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tadros ThF (1988) In: Ivanov IB (ed) Thin Liquid Films. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 331–377Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Verwey EJW, Overbeek JThG (1948) Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids. Elsevier Pub., Amsterdam, pp 135–182Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Derjaguin BV (1955) Colloid J USSR 17:191; Rusanov AI (1975) J Colloid Interface Sci 53:20; de Feijter JA, Rijnbout JB, Vrij A (1978) J Colloid Interface Sci 64:258Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ruckenstein E, Jain RK (1974) Faraday Trans 270:32; Jain RK, Ruckenstein E (1976) J Colloid Interface Sci 54:108Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nakamura M, Uchida K (1980) J Colloid Interface Sci 78:479; Chervenivanova E, Zapryanov Z (1985) Int & Multiphase Flow 11:721Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Friberg S (1971) J Colloid Interface Sci 37:291; Friberg S, Jausson PO, Cederberg E (1976) J Colloid Interface Sci 55:614Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Suzuki Y, Tsutsumi H (1987) Yukagaku 36:588; Tsutsumi H (1988) Yukagaku 37:965Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Exerowa D, Kolarov T, Khristov Khr (1971/1972) Annu Univ Sofia Fac Chim 66:293; Exerowa D, Zacharieva M, Radeva Z (1973/1974) 68:85Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Exerowa D (1978) Commun Dept Chem Bulg Acad Sci 11:739Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tadros TF, Vincent B (1983) In: Becher P (ed) Encyclopedia of Emulsion Technology. Vol 1, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 129–285Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Derjaguin BV, Landau L (1941) Acta Physiochem USSR 14:633Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mathai KG, Ottewill RH (1966) Trans Faraday Soc 62:759Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Osmond DWJ, Vincent B, Waite FA (1973) J Colloid Interface Sci 42:262; Vincent B (1973) J Colloid Interface Sci 42:270Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ottewill RH (1967) In: Schick MJ (ed) Nonionic Surfactants. Marcel Dekker, New York, Chap 19Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mackor EL (1951) J Colloid Sci 6:490Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ottewill RH, Walker (1968) J Kolloid Z 227:108Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fischer EW (1958) Kolloid Z 160:120Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hesselink FTh, Vrij A, Overbeek JThG (1971) J Phys Chem 25:2094Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Flory PJ, Krigbaum WR (1950) J Chem Phys 18:1086Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tajima K, Iwahashi M (1973) Bull Chem Soc Jpn 46:3370Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kambe Y, Honda C (1983) Polymer Commun 24:208Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dorset DL (1983) J Colloid Interface Sci 96:172Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ivanov IB, Dimitrov DS (1988) In: Ivanov IB (ed) Thin Liquid Films. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 482–486Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Exerowa D, Khristov Khr, Penev I (1975) In: Akers RJ (ed) Foams. Academic Press, London, pp 110–115Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Charles GE, Mason SG (1960) J Colloid Sci 15:105 and 236Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vril A, Overbeek JThG (1968) J Amer Chem Soc 90:3074Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lucassen J, van den Tempel, Vrij M, Hesselink FTh (1970) Proc Kon Ned Akad Wetensch, Ser B 73:109Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ribeiro AA, Dennis EA (1976) J Phys Chem 80:1746; ibid (1977) 81:957Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nakamura M, private communicationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Tajima
    • 1
  • M. Koshinuma
    • 2
  • A. Nakamura
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of EngineeringKanagawa UniversityYokohama-shiJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of ChemistryTeikyo University of TechnologyIchihara-shi, ChibaJapan
  3. 3.Nagoya Municipal Women's CollegeNagoya-shi, AichiJapan

Personalised recommendations