Technical considerations in extracting and regulating springwater for public consumption
Many states within the United States as well as many other countries have promulgated regulations addressing public health, consumer protection, and truthin-labeling aspects of the extraction, bottling, and labeling of commercially bottled springwater intended for public consumption. Many of these regulations are inconsistent, suggesting a need for more uniform standards in acceptable extraction methods and legal/technical definitions of “spring” and “springwater.” An objective of the extraction or collection method is protecting the quality and integrity of the springwater, especially against microbial contamination. A summary of microbiological issues associated with groundwater and springwater is presented. Acceptable extraction methods can be either surface collection boxes/houses at the discharge point of the spring or a subsurface borehole or gallery interception system. Although extraction wells can provide total protective isolation of the water, a potential concern with that method is providing assurance that the extracted water is in fact the same water that feeds the adjacent spring. Criteria for testing this requirement are suggested in the paper.
Key wordsRegulating springwater Bottled water Commercial labeling of springwater
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Geological Institute (1960) Glossary of geology and related sciences, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. p 277Google Scholar
- American Geological Institute (1976) Dictionary of Geological Terms, rev. ed. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday. p 404Google Scholar
- AFDO (Association of Food and Drug Offcial) (1986) Model Bottled Water Regulation. Washington, D.C.: AFDOGoogle Scholar
- Back W and Landa ER (1992) Ingesting the consequences of waterrock interaction: Historical notes on bottled water and spas. Proceedings of water-interaction-7 symposium, Park City, Utah, 13–22 July 1922, sponsored by International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry (preprint)Google Scholar
- Blake PA, Rosenberg ML, Florencia J, Costa JB, Do Prado Quintino L and Gargarosa EG (1977) Transmission by bottled mineral water. Am J Epidemiol 105:344–348Google Scholar
- Edberg SC (1992) Health effects of microbes isolated from drinking water. In: Gilbert CE and Calabres EJ (Eds), Regulating drinking water quality. Boca Raton, FL: Lemis Publ. 340 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hem JD (1989) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. US Geol Survey Water Supply Paper 2254, p36Google Scholar
- IBWA (International Bottled Water Association) (1991) International bottled Water Association Model Bottled Water Regulation. Alexandria, VA: IBWA, 11 ppGoogle Scholar
- Meinzer OE (1923) Outline of ground water hydrology, with definitions. US Geol Survey Water Supply Paper 494, p 54Google Scholar
- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (1985) Milk-borneSalmonella in Illinois. 34:215–216, 2483Google Scholar