Environmental Geology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 52–59 | Cite as

Technical considerations in extracting and regulating springwater for public consumption

  • J. B. Robertson
  • S. C. Edberg


Many states within the United States as well as many other countries have promulgated regulations addressing public health, consumer protection, and truthin-labeling aspects of the extraction, bottling, and labeling of commercially bottled springwater intended for public consumption. Many of these regulations are inconsistent, suggesting a need for more uniform standards in acceptable extraction methods and legal/technical definitions of “spring” and “springwater.” An objective of the extraction or collection method is protecting the quality and integrity of the springwater, especially against microbial contamination. A summary of microbiological issues associated with groundwater and springwater is presented. Acceptable extraction methods can be either surface collection boxes/houses at the discharge point of the spring or a subsurface borehole or gallery interception system. Although extraction wells can provide total protective isolation of the water, a potential concern with that method is providing assurance that the extracted water is in fact the same water that feeds the adjacent spring. Criteria for testing this requirement are suggested in the paper.

Key words

Regulating springwater Bottled water Commercial labeling of springwater 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Robertson
    • 1
  • S. C. Edberg
    • 2
  1. 1.HydroGeoLogic, Inc.HerndonUSA
  2. 2.School of MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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