Environmental Geology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 111–120 | Cite as

Quantitative analysis of springs

  • B. A. Memon
Original Articles


Growing demand for groundwater resources and stringent environmental concerns has led to large groundwater investigations, including characterization of aquifer systems that are hydraulically connected to springs. A pumping test is one of the most reliable means of quantifying hydraulic characteristics and the response of natural springs to pumping because it yields results that, in general, are representative of a larger area than are results from a single point observation. Recharge to the aquifer sustaining discharge from springs must be evaluated prior to the utilization of springs. The spring hydrograph is analyzed, as the shape of a hydrograph is a reflection of the response of the aquifer to recharge. The form and rate of recession provide significant information on the storage, lithological composition, and structural characteristics of the aquifer system sustaining the spring. Water tracing techniques have been developed and used over a period of centuries to delineate catchment boundaries, estimate groundwater flow velocities, determine areas of recharge, and identify sources of pollution of spring water.

Key words

Springs Aquifer systems Recharge/discharge Groundwater resources Natural tracers Artificial tracers 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Memon
    • 1
  1. 1.P.E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc.TuscaloosaUSA

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