Catalysis Letters

, Volume 7, Issue 1–4, pp 61–81 | Cite as

Carbide phases on iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts part I: Characterization studies

  • John B. Butt


The characterization of iron carbide phases formed on iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is reviewed in this part with particular emphasis on Mössbauer and XPS studies of selected iron and supported iron catalysts, in combination with some specific results in activity and selectivity. Mössbauer studies have shown clearly the evolution of bulk carbide species on iron catalysts under synthesis reaction conditions; the relationship of these to the nature of near-surface species and their temporal evolution under synthesis conditions is indicated by XPS results. Comparisons among reduced, unreduced and carbided iron catalysts are given; XPS and reaction results suggest that Fe3O4 is active for synthesis even in the absence of carbide phases.

Synthesis catalysts characterization of Mössbauer spectra iron alloy catalysts X-ray diffraction iron alloy catalysts XPS spectra iron synthesis catalysts 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J.A. Amelse, J.B. Butt and L.H. Schwartz, J. Phys. Chem. 82 (1978) 558.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    G.B. Raupp and W.N. Delgass, J. Catal. 58 (1979) 348, 361.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J.W. Niemantsverdriet, A.M. van der Kraan, W.J. van Dijk and H.S. van der Baan, J. Phys. Chem. 84 (1980) 3363.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    K.M. Sancier, W.E. Isakson and H. Wise,Advances in Fischer-Tropsch Chemistry, ACS Anaheim Meeting (1978) p. 545.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    C.S. Kuivila, J.B. Butt and P.C. Stair, Appl. Surf. Sci. 32 (1988) 99.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    D.J. Dwyer and G.A. Somorjai, J. Catal. 52 (1978) 291; 56 (1978) 249.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    A.J. Krebs, H.P. Bonzel and G. Gafner, Surf. Sci. 88 (1979) 269.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R.A. Arents, Yu. V. Maksimov, I.P. Suydalev, V.K. Imshennik and Yu. F. Krupyanskiy, Fiz. Metal. Metallovred. 36 (1973) 277.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Nagahura, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 14 (1959) 186.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    L.J.E. Hofer, E. Sterling and J.T. McCartney, J. Phys. Chem. 59 (1955) 1153.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R.B. Andersen, in:Catalysis, ed. P.H. Emmet, Vol. IV (Reinhold, NY, 1956).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J.A. Amelse, G. Grynkewich, J.B. Butt and L.H. Schwartz, J. Phys. Chem. 85 (1981) 2484.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    H. Kundig, H. Bommel, G. Constabaris and R.H. Lindquist, Phys. Rev. 142 (1966) 327.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S.M. Loktev, L.I. Makarenkova, E.V. Slivinskii and S.D. Entin, Kin. i Katal. 13 (1972) 933.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    H. Pichler, Adv. Catal. 4 (1952) 271.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    R.J. Matyi, L.H. Schwartz and J.B. Butt, Catal. Rev.-Scie. Engr. 29 (1987) 41.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    M.E. Dry, T. Shingles, L. Boshoff and A. Vosthuisen, J. Catal. 15 (1969) 190;Google Scholar
  18. [17a]
    see also: M.E. Dry and G.J. Oosthuizen, J. Catal. 11 (1968) 18.Google Scholar
  19. [18]
    M.A. Vannice and R.L. Garten, Paper 17e, 67th AIChE Meeting, Washington, D.C., December 1974.Google Scholar
  20. [19]
    J.A. Amelse, L.H. Schwartz and J.B. Butt, J. Catal. 63 (1981) 95.Google Scholar
  21. [20]
    H.J. Goldschmidt,Interstitial Alloys (Plenum, New York, 1967).Google Scholar
  22. [21]
    E. Unmuth, L.H. Schwartz and J.B. Butt, J. Catal. 63 (1980) 404.Google Scholar
  23. [22]
    A.D. Romig and J.I. Goldstein, Metall. Trans. A 92 (1978) 1599.Google Scholar
  24. [23]
    H.P. Bonzel and H.J. Krebs, Surf. Sci. 91 (1980) 499.Google Scholar
  25. [24]
    K. Wandelt, Surf. Sci. Rept. 2 (1982) 1.Google Scholar
  26. [25]
    D.J. Dwyer and J.H. Hardenbergh, J. Catal. 87 (1984) 66.Google Scholar
  27. [26]
    C.S. Kuivila, P.C. Stair and J.B. Butt, J. Catal. 118 (1989) 299.Google Scholar
  28. [27]
    D.J. Dwyer and J.H. Hardenbergh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 19 (1984) 14.Google Scholar
  29. [28]
    J.P. Reymond, P. Meriandeau and S. Teichner, J. Catal. 75 (1982) 39.Google Scholar
  30. [29]
    R.A. Dictor and A.T. Bell, J. Catal. 97 (1986) 121.Google Scholar
  31. [30]
    J.F. Schultz, W.K. Hall, B. Seligman and R.B. Anderson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77 (1955) 213.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J.C. Baltzer A.G., Scientific Publishing Company 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Butt
    • 1
  1. 1.Ipatieff Laboratory and Department of Chemical EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Personalised recommendations