General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 87–94 | Cite as

Is the universe expanding?

  • G. F. R. Ellis
Research Articles


It is shown that spherically symmetric static general relativistic cosmological space-times can reproduce the same cosmological observations as the currently favored Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, if the usual assumptions are made about the local physical laws determining the behavior of matter, provided that the universe is inhomogeneous and our galaxy is situated close to one of its centers. Only (i) unverifiable a priori assumptions, (ii) detailed physical and astrophysical arguments, or (iii) observation of the time variation of cosmological quantities can lead us to conclude that the universe we live in is not such a static space-time.


Time Variation Differential Geometry Usual Assumption Cosmological Observation Cosmological Quantity 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. R. Ellis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied MathematicsUniversity of Cape TownSouth Africa

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