General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 1213–1218 | Cite as

Horned particles as the endpoint of Hawking evaporation

  • Thomas Banks
Research Articles


This essay reviews recent developments in the theory of Hawking evaporation of black holes. Study of near extremal magnetically charged black holes using a two plus four dimensional effective field theory has led to the concept of horned particles orcornucopion as the endpoint of Hawking evaporation. Horned particles are geometries containing two large asymptotic regions connected by microscopic necks. They look like point particles to an observer in any given asymptotic region, but in many ways behave like macroscopic objects. In particular, it is very difficult to pair produce them in external fields and their contribution to virtual loops is highly suppressed. They can serve as the remnants necessary to account for the information apparently lost in Hawking evaporation. The information simply goes into the new asymptotic region formed when the black hole collapses and evaporates.


Evaporation Black Hole Endpoint Field Theory External Field 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Banks
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

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