Primary thermometry with nanoscale tunnel junctions
We have found current-voltage (I-V) and conductance (dI/dV) characteristics of arrays of nanoscale tunnel junctions between normal metal electrodes to exhibit suitable features for primary thermometry. The current through a uniform array depends on the ratio of the thermal energy kBT and the electrostatic charging energy E c of the islands between the junctions and is completely blocked by Coulomb repulsion at T = 0 and at small voltages eV/2 ≤ Ec. In the opposite limit, kBT ≫ Ec, the width of the conductance minimum scales linearly and universally with T and N, the number of tunnel junctions, and qualifies as a primary thermometer. The zero bias drop in the conductance is proportional to T−1 and can be used as a secondary thermometer. We will show with Monte Carlo simulations how background charge and nonuniformities of the array will affect the thermometer.
PACS numbers73.40.Gk 07.20.Dt 73.40.Rw
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