Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 249–264 | Cite as

Psychiatric rehabilitation: Past myths and current realities

  • William A. Anthony
  • William A. Kennard
  • William F. O'Brien
  • Rick Forbess
Articles

Abstract

Psychiatric rehabilitation treatment has a unique and complementary contribution to make to the treatment of persons with a severe psychiatric disability. However, the development of the psychiatric rehabilitation field, and the adoption of its philosophy and techniques by mental health agencies, has been hampered by past myths. Research carried out in the 1960s and 1970s has exposed these myths as a part of the past, no longer relevant to the present practice of rehabilitating persons with severe psychiatric disabilities.

Keywords

Public Health Mental Health Health Psychology Health Agency Rehabilitation Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anthony, W.A.. Psychological rehabilitation: A concept in need of a method.American Psychologist, 1977,32, 658–662.Google Scholar
  2. Anthony, W.A.The Principles of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Baltimore, University Park Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, W.A. The one-two-three of client evaluation in psychiatric rehabilitation settings.Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 8, 1984, 85–87.Google Scholar
  4. Anthony, W.A., Buell, G.J., Sharratt, S. & Althoff, M.F. The efficacy of psychiatric rehabilitation.Psychological Bulletin, 78, 1972, 447–456.Google Scholar
  5. Anthony, W.A. and Carkhuff, R.R. The functional professional therapeutic agent. In A. S. Gurman and A.M. Razin (Eds.),Effective Psychotherapy, London: Pergramon Press, 1977 (pp. 84–119).Google Scholar
  6. Anthony, W.A., Cohen, M.R. & Vitalo, R. The measurement of rehabilitation outcome.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4 (3), 1978, 365–383.Google Scholar
  7. Anthony, W.A., & Dion, G. Psychiatric rehabilitation.Rehabilitation Research Review. Washington, DC: National Rehabilitation Information Center, 1985.Google Scholar
  8. Anthony, W.A. & Farkas, M. A client outcome planning model for assessing psychiatric rehabilitation intervention.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8, 1982, 13–38.Google Scholar
  9. Anthony, W.A., Howell, J., & Danley, K. The vocational rehabilitation of the psychiatrically disabled. In M. Mirabi (Ed.),The Chronically Mentally Ill: Research and Practice. New York: SP Medical And Scientific Books, 1984.Google Scholar
  10. Anthony, W.A. & Nemec, P. Psychiatric rehabilitation. In A.S. Bellack (Ed.),Schizophrenia: Treatment, Management and Rehabilitation. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1984 (pp. 375–413).Google Scholar
  11. Arthur, G., Ellsworth, R.B., & Kroeker, D. Schizophrenic patient post-hospital community adjustment and readmission.Social Work, 13, 1968, 78–84.Google Scholar
  12. Bachrach, L.Deinstitutionalization: An Analytical Review and Sociological Perspective. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health, Division of Biometry and Epidemiology, 1976.Google Scholar
  13. Barbee, M.S., Berry, K.L. & Micek, L.A. Relationship of work therapy to psychiatric length of stay and readmission.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 1969, 735–738.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, P. & Bayer, C. Preparing chronic patients for community placement: A four-stage treatment program.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 26, 1975, 228–450.Google Scholar
  15. Bolton, B. A factor analysis of personal adjustment and vocational measures of client change.Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 18, 1974, 99–104.Google Scholar
  16. Bolton, B. Dimensions of client change: A replication.Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 22, 1978, 8–14.Google Scholar
  17. Carkhuff, R.R.,The Development of Human Resources. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.Google Scholar
  18. Carkhuff, R.R.Cry Twice! From Custody to Treatment: The Story of Institutional Change. Amherst: Human Resource Development Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, A.E., Dinitz, S. & Pasamanick, B.Schizophrenics in the New Custodial Community: Five Years After the Experiment. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. Dellario, D. & Anthony, W. On the relative effectiveness of institutional and alternative placements for the psychiatrically disabled.Journal of Social Issues, 37, 1981, 21–33.Google Scholar
  21. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edition). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. Distefano, M.K. & Pryer, M.W. Vocational evaluation and successful placement of psychiatric clients in a vocational rehabilitation program.American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 24, 1970, 205–207.Google Scholar
  23. Douzinas, N. & Carpenter, M. Predicting the community performance of vocational ehabilitation clients.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 32, 1981, 309–412.Google Scholar
  24. Ellsworth, R.B., Foster L., Childers, B., Arthur, G., & Kroeker, D. Hospital and community adjustment as perceived by psychiatric patients, their families and staff.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Monographs, 32, 1968, (3, Pt. 2) 1–41.Google Scholar
  25. Englehardt, D.M., & Rosen, B. Implications of doing treatment for the social rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2, 1976, 454–462.Google Scholar
  26. Erickson, R.C. Outcome studies in mental hospitals: A review.Psychological Bulletin, 82, 1975, 519–540.Google Scholar
  27. Erickson, R.C. & Hyerstay, B.J. Historical perspectives on treatment of the mentally ill. In: M.S. Gibbs, J.R. Lachermeyer & J. Sigal,Community Psychology: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. New York: Gardner Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  28. Ethridge, D.A. Pre-vocational assessment of the rehabilitation potential of psychiatric patients.American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22, 1968, 161–167.Google Scholar
  29. Felix, R.H.Mental Illness: Progress and Prospect. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  30. Foreyt, J.P., & Felton, G.S., Changes in behavior of hospitalized psychiatric patients in a milieu therapy setting.Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 7, 1970, 139–141.Google Scholar
  31. Forsyth, R.P. & Fairweather, G.W. Psychotherapeutic and other hospital treatment criteria: The dilemma.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 1961, 598–604.Google Scholar
  32. Freeman, H.E., & Simmons, O.G.The Mental Patient Comes Home. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1963.Google Scholar
  33. Goldman, H.H., Gattozzi, A.A. & Taube, C.A. Defining and counting the chronically mentally ill.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 32, 1981, 21–27.Google Scholar
  34. Goss, A.M., & Pate, K.D. Predicting vocational rehabilitation success for psychiatric patients with psychological tests.Psychological Reports, 21, 1967, 725–730.Google Scholar
  35. Grinspoon, L., Ewalt, J.R., & Shader, R.E.Schizophrenia: Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1972.Google Scholar
  36. Green, H.J., Miskimins, R.W. & Keil, E.C. Selection of psychiatric patients for vocational rehabilitation.Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 11, 1968, 297–302.Google Scholar
  37. Gregory, C.C., & Downie, M.N. Prognostic study of patients who left, returned and stayed in a psychiatric hospital.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 15, 1968, 232–236.Google Scholar
  38. Growick, B. Another look at the relationship between vocational and nonvocational client change.Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 23, 1979, 136–139.Google Scholar
  39. Gurel, L. & Lorei, T.W. Hospital and community ratings of psychopathology as predictors of employment and readmission.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 1972, 286–291.Google Scholar
  40. Hall, J.C., Smith, K., & Shimkunas, A. Employment problems of schizophrenic patients.American Journal of Psychiatry, 123, 1966, 536–540.Google Scholar
  41. Heap, F.R., Boblitt, E.W., Moore, H. & Hord, E.J. Behavior milieu therapy with chronic neuropsychiatric patients.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 1970, 349–354.Google Scholar
  42. Hertz, M.I., Spitzer, R.L., Gibbon, M., Greerspan, K., & Reibel, S. Individual versus group aftercare treatment.American Journal of Psychiatry, 303, 1974, 808–812.Google Scholar
  43. Kiesler, C.A. Mental hospitals and alternative care: Noninstitution as a potential public policy for mental patients.American Psychologist, 37, (4), 1982, 349–360.Google Scholar
  44. Langsley, D.G., Machotka, P. & Flomenhaft, K., Avoiding mental hospital admission: a follow-up study.American Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 1971, 1391–1394.Google Scholar
  45. Langsley, D.G. & Kaplan, D.M.The Treatment of Families in Crisis. New York: Grune & Stratton, Inc. 1968.Google Scholar
  46. Lorei, T.W. Prediction of community stay and employment for released psychiatric patients.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 1967, 349–357.Google Scholar
  47. Lorei, T.W., & Gurel, L. Demographic characteristics as predictors of post-hospital employment and readmission.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 1973, 426–430.Google Scholar
  48. McNees, M.P., Hannah, J.T., Schnelle, J.F., & Bratton, K.M.: The effects of aftercare programs on institutional recidivism.Journal of Community Psychology, 5, 1977, 128–133.Google Scholar
  49. Michaux, M.H., Chelst, M.R., Foster, S.A. & Pruin R. Day and full-time psychiatric treatment: A controlled comparison.Current Therapy Reseach, 14, 1972, 279–292.Google Scholar
  50. Miles, P.G., A research-based approach to psychiatric rehabilitation. In L.M. Roberts (Ed.),The Role of Vocational Rehabilitation in Community Mental Health., Washington, DC: Rehabilitation Services Administration, 1967.Google Scholar
  51. Moller, H., von Zerssen, D., Werner-Eilert, K., & Wuschenr-Stockheim, M. Outcome in schizophrenic and similar paranoid psychoses.Schizophrenic Bulletin, 8, 1982, 99–108.Google Scholar
  52. Mosher, L.R. & Keith, S.J. Research on the psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia: A summary report.American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1979, 623–631.Google Scholar
  53. Mosher, L.R. & Menn, A.Z., Lowered barriers in the community: The Soteria model. In Stein, L.I. and Test, M.A. (Eds.)Alternatives to Mental Hospital Treatment, New York: Plenum Press, 1978, 75–113.Google Scholar
  54. Pasamanick, B., Scarpitti, F. & Dinitz, S.Schizophrenics in the Community. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  55. Paul, G.L., & Lentz, R.J.Psychosocial Treatment of Chronic Mental Patients: Milieu Versus Social Learning Programs Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  56. Polak, P.R. A comprehensive system of alternatives to psychiatric hospitalization. In Stein, L.I. and Test, M.S. (Eds.),Alternatives to Mental Hospital Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1978, 115–137.Google Scholar
  57. Rittenhouse, J.D.Without Hospitalization: An Experimental Study of Aftercare in the Home. Denver: Swallow Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  58. Schwartz, C., Myers, J., & Astrachan, B. Concordance of multiple assessments of the outcome of schizophrenia.Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1975, 1221–1227.Google Scholar
  59. Schooler, N.R. & Severe, J.B. Efficacy of drug treatment for chronic schizophrenic patients. In M. Mirabi (Ed.)The Chronically Mentally Ill: Research and Services. New York: SP Medical and Scientific Books, 1984, 125–142.Google Scholar
  60. Skelley, R.J. National developments in rehabilitation: A rehabilitation services administration perspective.Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 24, 1980, 22–33.Google Scholar
  61. Stein, L.I., & Test, M.A.: An alternative to mental hospital treatment. In Stein, L.I. and Test, M.A. (Eds.)Alternatives to Mental Hospital Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1978, 43–55.Google Scholar
  62. Strauss, J., & Carpenter, W. The prediction of outcome in schizophrenia.Archives of General Psychiatry, 27, 1972, 739–746.Google Scholar
  63. Strauss, J., & Carpenter, W. The prediction of outcome in schizophrenia. 2.Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 1974, 37–42.Google Scholar
  64. Stroul, B.Toward Community Support Systems For the Mentally Disabled: The NIMH Community Support Program. Boston: Boston University Center for Rehabilitation Research and Training in Mental Health, 1984.Google Scholar
  65. Sturm, I.E., & Lipton, H. Some social and vocational predictors of psychiatric hospitalization outcome.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 1967, 301–307.Google Scholar
  66. Sue, S., McKinney, H., & Allen, D.B., Predictors of the duration of therapy for clients in the community mental health center system.Community Mental Health Journal, 12, 1976, 365–375.Google Scholar
  67. Summers, F. The effects of aftercare after one year.Journal of Psychiatric Treatment and Evaluation, 3, 1981, 405–409.Google Scholar
  68. Tessler, R., & Manderscheid, R. Factors affecting adjustment to community living.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 33, 1982, 203–207.Google Scholar
  69. Test, M.A. & Stein, L.I. Community treatment of the chronically disabled: Long term follow-up. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. San Francisco, CA. 1977.Google Scholar
  70. Test, M. & Stein, L. Community treatment of the chronic patient: Research overview.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4 (3), 1978, 350–364.Google Scholar
  71. Waldeck, J.P., Emerson, S. & Edelstein, B. COPE: A systematic approach to moving chronic patients into the community.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 30 (8), 1979, 551–554.Google Scholar
  72. Walker, R. Social disability of 150 mental patients one month after hospital discharge.Rehabilitation Literature, 33, 1972, 326–329.Google Scholar
  73. Walker, R., & McCourt, J. Employment experience among 200 schizophrenic patients in hospital and after discharge.American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 1965, 316–319.Google Scholar
  74. Walker, R., Wineck, W., Frost, E.S., & Lieberman, J.W. Social restoration of hospitalized psychiatric patients through a program of special employment in industry.Rehabilitation Literature, 30, 1969, 297–303.Google Scholar
  75. Watts, F., & Bennett, D. Previous occupational stability as a predictor of employment after psychiatric rehabilitation.Psychological Medicine, 7, 1977, 709–712.Google Scholar
  76. Weinman, B., Kleiner, R., Yu, J. & Tillson, V. Social treatment of the chronic psychotic patient in the community.Journal of Community Psychology, 4, 1974, 358–365.Google Scholar
  77. Wessler, R.L., & Iven, D. Social characteristics of patients readmitted to a community mental health center.Community Mental Health Journal, 6, 1970, 69–74.Google Scholar
  78. Wilder, J.F., Levin, G., & Zwerling, J. A two-year follow-up evaluation of acute psychotic patients treated in a day hospital.American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 1966, 1095–1011.Google Scholar
  79. Wilson, T.L., Berry, L.K., & Miskimins, W.R. An assessment of characteristics related to vocational success among restored psychiatric patients.The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 18, 1969, 110–114.Google Scholar
  80. Wolkon, G.W. Characteristics of clients and continuity of care into the community.Community Mental Health Journal, 6, 1970, 215–221.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Anthony
  • William A. Kennard
  • William F. O'Brien
  • Rick Forbess

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations