General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 253–258 | Cite as

Boundary conditions in closed universes

  • J. K. Lawrence
Research Articles


We consider the problem of a particle in a square potential well in a one-dimensional closed universe. Imposition of periodic boundary conditions on the wave function changes the usual discrete energy levels to narrow but finite energy bands. Effects on the properties of atoms in a closed universe are estimated to be undetectable.


Boundary Condition Wave Function Energy Level Periodic Boundary Energy Band 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. K. Lawrence
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Phyaics and AstronomyCalifornia State UniversityNorthridge

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