Space Science Reviews

, Volume 74, Issue 3–4, pp 385–396 | Cite as

The origin of cosmic rays

  • Peter L. Biermann
Article

Abstract

In the following we describe recent progress in our understanding of the origin of cosmic rays. We propose that cosmic rays originate mainly in three sites, a) normal supernova explosions into the interstellar medium, b) supernova explosions into stellar winds, and c) hot spots of powerful radio galaxies. The proposal depends on an assumption about the scaling of the turbulent diffusive transport in cosmic ray mediated shock regions; the proposal also uses a specific model for the interstellar transport of cosmic rays. The model has been investigated in some detail and compared to i) the radio data of OB stars, Wolf Rayet stars, radio supernovae, radio supernova remnants, Gamma-ray line and continuum emission from starforming regions, and the cosmic ray electron spectrum, ii) the Akeno air shower data over the particle energy range from 10 TeV to EeV, and iii) the Akeno and Fly's Eye air shower data from 0.1 EeV to above 100 EeV.

Key words

Cosmic Rays 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, D.C. et al.: 1986Astrophys. J. 303, 239–261.Google Scholar
  2. Asakimori, K.et al.: 1993 inProc. 23rd Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Calgary)2, 21–29.Google Scholar
  3. Baade, W., Zwicky, F.: 1934Proc. Nat. Acad. Science,20, no. 5, 259–263.Google Scholar
  4. Berezinskii, V.S. et al.: 1990Astrophysics of cosmic rays. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattacharjee, P.: 1991Astrophysical Aspects of the most energetic Cosmic Rays, Eds. M. Nagano, F. Takahara, World Scientific, Singapore, p. 382–399.Google Scholar
  6. Bieging, J.H., Abbott, D.C., Churchwell, E.B.: 1989Astrophys. J. 340, 518–536.Google Scholar
  7. Biermann, P.L.: 1993aAstron. & Astrophys. 271, 649–661.Google Scholar
  8. Biermann, P.L.: 1993b inCurrents in Astrophysics and Cosmology, (Conf. proc. 1990, paper sent in 1989) Eds. G.G. Fazio & R. Silberberg, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 12–19.Google Scholar
  9. Biermann, P.L.: 1993c in23rd ICRC, Invited, Rapporteur and Highlight Papers, ed. D.A. Leahy et al. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), 45–83.Google Scholar
  10. Biermann, P.L.: 1993b inHigh energy astrophysics, Ed. J. Matthews. World Scientific, Singapore, p. 217–286.Google Scholar
  11. Biermann, P.L.: 1994 inCosmic Winds and the Heliosphere, ed. J.R. Jokipii et al. (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994) in press.Google Scholar
  12. Biermann, P.L., Strittmatter, P.A.: 1987Astrophys. J. 322, 643–649.Google Scholar
  13. Biermann, P.L., and Cassinelli, J.P.: 1993Astron. & Astrophys. 277, 691–706.Google Scholar
  14. Biermann, P.L., and Strom, R.G.: 1993Astron. & Astrophys. 275, 659–669.Google Scholar
  15. Biermann, P.L., Gaisser, T.K., Stanev, T.: 1994Physical Review D, (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Biermann, P.L., Strom, R.G., Falcke, H.: 1994Astron. & Astrophys., (submitted)Google Scholar
  17. Bird, D.J., et al.: 1993Physical Review Letters 71, 3401–3404.Google Scholar
  18. Bird, D.J., et al.: 1994Astrophys. J. 424, 491–502.Google Scholar
  19. Blandford, R., Narayan, R., Romani, R.W.: 1986Astrophys. J. Letters 301, L53-L56.Google Scholar
  20. Britzen, S.: 1993 Diploma Thesis, (University of Bonn).Google Scholar
  21. Bykov, A.M., Toptygin, I.N.: 1990Sov. Phys. JETP 71, 702–708 (Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 98, 1255–1268).Google Scholar
  22. Bykov, A.M., Toptygin, I.N.: 1992Sov. Phys. JETP 74, 462–468 (Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 101, 866–877).Google Scholar
  23. Bykov, A.M., Fleishman, G.D.: 1992Monthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 255, 269–275.Google Scholar
  24. Cocconi, G.: 1956Nuovo Cimento, 10th ser. 3, 1433–1442.Google Scholar
  25. Cunningham, G. et al.: 1980Astrophys. J. Letters 236, L71-L75.Google Scholar
  26. Dickel, J.R. et al.: 1982Astrophys. J. 257, 145–150 (Erratum in 1983Astrophys. J. 264, 746).Google Scholar
  27. Dickel, J.R. et al.: 1988Astrophys. J. 330, 254–263.Google Scholar
  28. Dickel, J.R. et al.: 1991Astron. J. 101, 2151–2159.Google Scholar
  29. Dogiel, V.A., Sharov, G.S.: 1990Astron. & Astrophys. 229, 259–271.Google Scholar
  30. Downs, G.S., Thompson, A.R.: 1972Astron. J. 77, 120–133.Google Scholar
  31. Dwyer, J.et al.: 1993 inProc. 23rd Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Calgary)1, 587–590.Google Scholar
  32. Ellison, D.C. et al.: 1990Astrophys. J. 352, 376–394.Google Scholar
  33. Engelmann, J.J.: 1990 et al.Astron. & Astrophys. 233, 96–111.Google Scholar
  34. Falle, S.A.E.G.: 1990, inNeutron Stars and their Birth Events, Ed. W. Kundt, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 303–318.Google Scholar
  35. Freudenreich, H.T. et al.: 1990Physical Review D 41, 2732–2750.Google Scholar
  36. Gaisser, T.K. et al.: 1993Physical Review D 47, 1919–1932.Google Scholar
  37. Garcia-Munoz, M. et al.: 1987Astrophys. J. Suppl. 64, 269–304.Google Scholar
  38. Genzel, R., Stutzki, J.: 1989Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astroph. 27, 41–85.Google Scholar
  39. Ginzburg, V.L.: 1953Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 92, 1133 (NSF-Transl. 230).Google Scholar
  40. Golla, G.: 1989 M.Sc. Thesis, University BonnGoogle Scholar
  41. Gwinn, C.R. et al.: 1988aAstrophys. J. 330, 817–827.Google Scholar
  42. Gwinn, C.R. et al.: 1988bAstrophys. J. Letters 334, L13-L16.Google Scholar
  43. Hillas, A.M.: 1984Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astroph. 22, 425–444.Google Scholar
  44. Ichimura, M. et al.: 1993Phys. Rev. D 48, 1949.Google Scholar
  45. Ip, W.-H., Axford, W.I.: 1992 in AIP conference 264 Proc.Particle acceleration in cosmic plasmas, Eds. G.P. Zank, T.K. Gaisser, AIP New York, p. 400–405.Google Scholar
  46. Ivanenko, I.P.et al.: 1993 inProc. 23rd Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Calgary)2, 17–20.Google Scholar
  47. Jokipii, J.R., Morfill, G.: 1987Astrophys. J. 312, 170–177.Google Scholar
  48. Jokipii, J.R.: 1988 inRadiowave scattering in the Interstellar Medium, eds. J.M. Cordes, B.J. Rickett, D.C. Backer, AIP Conference Proc. No. 174, p. 48.Google Scholar
  49. Jones, F.C., Ellison, D.C.: 1991Space Science Rev. 58, 259.Google Scholar
  50. Kawamura, Y. et al.: 1989Physical Review D 40, 729.Google Scholar
  51. Kraichnan, R.H.: 1965Phys. Fl. 8, 1385.Google Scholar
  52. Lagage, P.O., Cesarsky, C.J.: 1983Astron. & Astroph. 118, 223–228Google Scholar
  53. Larson, R.B.: 1979Monthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 186, 479–490.Google Scholar
  54. Larson, R.B.: 1981Monthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 194, 809–826.Google Scholar
  55. Lund, N.: 1989 inCosmic Abundances of Matter (A.I.P. Conf. Proc. No. 183, ed. C. Jake Waddington) 111.Google Scholar
  56. Matthaeus, W.H., Zhou, Y.: 1989Phys. Fluids B 1, 1929–1931.Google Scholar
  57. Milne, D.K.: 1971Austral. J. Phys. 24, 757–767.Google Scholar
  58. Milne, D.K.: 1987Austral. J. Phys. 40, 771–787.Google Scholar
  59. Müller, D. et al.: 1991Astrophys. J. 374, 356–365.Google Scholar
  60. Narayan, R.: 1988 inRadiowave scattering in the Interstellar Medium, eds. J.M. Cordes, B.J. Rickett, D.C. Backer, AIP Conference Proc. No. 174, p. 17.Google Scholar
  61. Nath, B.B., Biermann, P.L.: 1993Monthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 265, 241–249.Google Scholar
  62. Nath, B.B., Biermann, P.L.: 1994aMonthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 267, 447–451.Google Scholar
  63. Nath, B.B., Biermann, P.L.: 1994bMonthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 270, L33-L36.Google Scholar
  64. Parker, E.N.: 1958Astrophys. J. 128, 664–676.Google Scholar
  65. Polcaro, V.F. et al.: 1991Astron. & Astrophys. 252, 590–596.Google Scholar
  66. Polcaro, V.F. et al.: 1993Astron. & Astrophys. Suppl. 97, 139.Google Scholar
  67. Prandtl, L.: 1925Zeitschrift angew. Math. und Mech. 5, 136–139.Google Scholar
  68. Protheroe, R.J., Szabo, A.P.: 1992Phys. Rev. Letters 69, 2885–2888.Google Scholar
  69. Rachen, J.P., Biermann, P.L.: 1993Astron. & Astroph. 272, 161–175.Google Scholar
  70. Rachen, J.P., Stanev, T. and Biermann, P.L.: 1993Astron. & Astrophys. 273, 377–382.Google Scholar
  71. Ratkiewicz, R., Axford, W.I., McKenzie, J.F.: 1994Astron. & Astroph. (in press)Google Scholar
  72. Reynolds, S.P., Gilmore, D.M.: 1986Astron. J. 92, 1138–1144.Google Scholar
  73. Rickett, B.J.: 1990Ann.Rev.Astron. & Astroph. 28, 561–605.Google Scholar
  74. Ryan, M.J., Ormes, J.F. and Balasubrahmanyan, V.K.: 1972Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 985–988;28, 1497 (Erratum).Google Scholar
  75. Seaquist, E.R. et al.: 1989Astrophys. J. 344, 805–825.Google Scholar
  76. Seo, E.-S. et al.: 1991Astrophys. J. 378, 763–772.Google Scholar
  77. Shapiro, M.M., Silberberg, R. and Tsao, C.H.: 1993 inProc. 23rd Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Calgary)2, 386–389.Google Scholar
  78. Shklovskii, I.S.: 1953Dokl. Akad. Nauk, SSSR 91, no. 3, 475–478 (Lib. of Congress Transl. RT-1495).Google Scholar
  79. Silberberg, R., Tsao, C.H., Shapiro, M.M. & Biermann, P.L.: 1990Astrophys. J. 363, 265–269.Google Scholar
  80. Simon, M. et al.: 1989Astrophys. J. 239, 712–724.Google Scholar
  81. Spangler, S.R., Gwinn, C.R.: 1990Astrophys. J. Letters 353, L29-L32.Google Scholar
  82. Stanev, T., Biermann, P.L., & Gaisser, T.K.: 1993,Astron. & Astrophys. 274, 902–908.Google Scholar
  83. Sun, L., Wang, S., Watson, A.A.: 1993Proc. 23rd Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Calgary)2, 43–46.Google Scholar
  84. Swordy, S.P. et al.: 1990Astrophys. J. 349, 625–633.Google Scholar
  85. Swordy, S.P., et al.: 1993Astrophys. J. 403, 658–662.Google Scholar
  86. Tuffs, R.J.: 1986Monthly Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 219, 13–38.Google Scholar
  87. Völk, H.J., Zank, L.A., & Zank, G.P.: 1988Astron. & Astrophys. 198, 274–282.Google Scholar
  88. Völk, H.J., & Biermann, P.L.: 1988Astrophys. J. Letters 333, L65-L68.Google Scholar
  89. Watson, A.A.: 1992 in AIP conference 264 Proc.Particle acceleration in cosmic plasmas, Eds. G.P. Zank, T.K. Gaisser, AIP, New York, p. 386–392.Google Scholar
  90. Webber, W.R., and Lezniak, J.A.: 1974Astrophys. & Sp. Sci. 30, 361–380.Google Scholar
  91. Webber, W.R., Golden, R.L., and Stephens, S.A.: 1987 inProc. 20th Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Moscow)1, 325.Google Scholar
  92. Webber, W.R., Golden, R.L., and Mewaldt, R.A.: 1987Astrophys. J. 312, 178–182.Google Scholar
  93. Webber, W.R.et al.: 1993, inProc. 23rd Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Calgary)2, 183.Google Scholar
  94. Wheeler, J.C.: 1990 inSupernovae, eds. J.C. Wheeler, T. Piran, S. Weinberg (World Scientific, Singapore) p. 1.Google Scholar
  95. Wiebel, B.: 1992 HEGRA-Note, University of WuppertalGoogle Scholar
  96. Yanagita, S., Nomoto, K., and Hayakawa, S.: 1990 inProc. 21st Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Adelaide)4, 44.Google Scholar
  97. Zank, G.P., Axford, W.I., McKenzie, J.F.: 1990Astron. & Astroph. 233, 275–284.Google Scholar
  98. Zatsepin, V.I.,et al.: 1993 inProc. 23rd Int. Cosm. Ray Conf. (Calgary)2, 13–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter L. Biermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institut für RadioastronomieBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations