Fertilizer research

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 235–242 | Cite as

Pterocarpus angolensis D.C.: field survival strategies, growth, root pruning and fertilization in the nursery

  • E. Munyanziza
  • R. A. A. Oldeman
Article

Abstract

Observations on growth behaviour of naturally regenerated and irrigated nursery seedlings ofPterocarpus angolensis were made in Morogoro, Tanzania. Following their natural survival strategy, seedlings build up a robust taproot. The above-ground shoot produced in a year dies back in the field during the dry period whereas the taproot expands during the rainy seasons. In the nursery, the type of symbiosis formed by irrigated seedlings was assessed and trials of taproot pruning and fertilization were carried out. Seedlings formed VA mycorrhizae and nodules. Root pruning sharply depressed seedling growth. Fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus disturbed the shoot/root ratio in favour of the shoots and inhibited nodulation. We concluded that manipulation of the root and the root environment ran contrary to the seedling's own, natural survival strategy.

Key words

fertilization growth natural survival root pruning Pterocarpus angolensis symbiosis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aziz T and Habte M (1989) Influence of inorganic N on mycorrhizal activity, nodulation and growth ofLeucaena leucocephala in an oxisol subjected to simulated erosion. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 20: 239–251Google Scholar
  2. Boaler SB (1966) The ecology ofPterocarpus angolensis D.C. in Tanzania. Overseas Research Publications, 12. H.M.S.O., LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryce JM (1967) The Commercial Timbers of Tanzania. Tanzania Forest Division, Utilisation Section, MoshiGoogle Scholar
  4. Celander N (1983) Miombo woodlands in Africa - Distribution, ecology and patterns of land use. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  5. Chamshama SAO and Hall JB (1987) Effects of nursery treatments onEucalyptus camaldulensis field establishment and early growth at Mafiga, Morogoro, Tanzania. For Ecol Manage 21: 91–108Google Scholar
  6. Chidumayo EN (1991) Seedling development of the miombo woodland treeJulbernardia globiflora. J Veg Sci 2: 21–26Google Scholar
  7. Dutt AK and Pathania U (1986) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on seedling growth and nodulation inLeucaena. Leucaena Res Rep 7: 38–39Google Scholar
  8. FAO (1974) Tree Planting Practices for Arid Zones. FAO Forestry Development Paper 16. 230 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Gosh RC, Singh RP and Sharma KK (1974) Standardisation of nursery technique of tropical pines III. Root pruning ofP. patula, Schiede and Deppe seedlings in nursery - a study. Indian For 100: 544–547.Google Scholar
  10. Harley JL and Smith SE (1983) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  11. Högberg P (1989) Root symbioses of trees in savannas. In: Procter J (ed) Mineral nutrients in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, pp 121-135. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. Högberg P (1992) Mycorrhizas in African miombo savanna woodlands. In: Read DJ, Lewis DH, Fitter AH and Alexander IJ (eds) Mycorrhizas in ecosystems, pp 382–383. C A B International, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Högberg P and Piearce GD (1986) Mycorrhizas in Zambian trees in relation to host taxonomy, vegetation type and successional patterns. J Ecol 74: 775–785Google Scholar
  14. Ivory MH and Munga FM (1983) Growth and survival of containergrownPinus caribaea infected with various ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 71: 339–344Google Scholar
  15. Lind EM and Morrison MES (1974) East African Vegetation. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Marschner H (1990) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Mengel K and Kirkby EA (1987) Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute, Worblaufen, BernGoogle Scholar
  18. Moloney RA, Aitken RL and Gutteridge RC (1986) The effect of phosphorus and nitrogen applications on the early growth ofAdenanthera pavonina, Albizia falcataria andSchleinitzia insularum. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Res Rep 4: 3–6Google Scholar
  19. Munyanziza E (1994) Miombo trees and mycorrhizae. Ecological strategies, a basis for afforestation. Ph D thesis, Wageningen Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  20. Newbery DM, Alexander IJ and Thomas DW (1988) Ectomycorrhizal rain-forest legumes and soil phosphorus in Korup National Park, Cameroon. New Phytol 109: 433–450Google Scholar
  21. Oldeman RAA (1989) Biological implications of leguminous tree architecture. In: Stirton CH and Zarucchi JL (eds) Advances in Legume Biology. Monogr Syst Bot Missouri Bot Gard 29: 17–34Google Scholar
  22. Redhead JF (1980) Mycorrhiza in natural tropical forests. In: Mikola P (ed) Tropical Mycorrhizal Research, pp 127–142. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. Rook DA (1971) Effect of undercutting and wrenching on growth ofP. radiata D. Don seedlings. J Appl Ecol 8: 477–490Google Scholar
  24. Sivasupiramaniam S, Akkasaeng R and Shelton HM (1986) Effects of nitrogen and lime on growth ofLeucaena leucocephala c.v. Cunningham on a red-yellow podzolic soil in south-eastern Queensland. Aust J Exp Agric 26: 23–29Google Scholar
  25. Sutton RF (1967) Influence of root pruning on height increment and root development of outplanted spruce. Can J Bot 45: 1671–1682Google Scholar
  26. Trapnell CG, Friend MT, Chamberlain GT and Birch HF (1976) The effects of fire and termites on a Zambian woodland soil. J Ecol 64: 577–588Google Scholar
  27. Van Daalen JC (1991) Germination ofPterocarpus angolensis seeds. SA For J 158: 33–36Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Munyanziza
    • 1
  • R. A. A. Oldeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecological AgricultureWageningen Agricultural UniversityWageningenthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations