Urea management for lowland transplanted rice as affected by application of farmyard manure
Farmyard manure (FYM) applied to rice-growing soils can substitute for industrial fertilizers, but little is known about the influence of FYM on the effectiveness and optimal management for industrial N fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted in northern Vietnam on a degraded soil in the spring season (February to June) and summer season (July to November) to determine the effect of FYM on optimal timing for the first application of urea. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two rates of basal incorporated FYM (0 or 6 Mg ha−1) in factorial combination with two timings of the first application of 30 kg urea-N ha−1 (basal incorporated before transplanting or delayed until 14 to 16 d after transplanting). The FYM was formed by composting pig manure with rice straw for 3 months. Basal incorporation of FYM, containing 23 kg N ha−1, increased rice grain yield in both seasons. The yield increase cannot be attributed to reduced ammonia loss of applied urea-N, because FYM did not reduce partial pressure of ammonia (pNH3) following urea application in either season. Basal and delayed applications of urea were equally effective in the absence of FYM, but when FYM was applied rice yields in both seasons were higher for delayed (mean = 3.2 Mg ha−1) than basal (mean = 2.9 Mg ha−1) application of urea. Results suggest that recommendations for urea timing in irrigated lowland rice should consider whether farmers apply FYM.
Key wordsfarmyard manure floodwater nitrogen Oryza sativa L. partial pressure of ammonia urea Vietnam
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