Advertisement

Fertilizer research

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Use of phenylphosphorodiamidate and N-(n-butyl)thiophosphorictriamide to reduce ammonia loss and increase grain yield following application of urea to flooded rice

  • S. Phongpan
  • J. R. Freney
  • D. G. Keerthisinghe
  • P. Chaiwanakupt
Article

Abstract

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is an important mechanism for nitrogen (N) loss from flooded rice fields following the application of urea into the floodwater. One method of reducing losses is to use a urease inhibitor that retards the hydrolysis of urea by soil urease and allows the urea to diffuse deeper into the soil. The two chemicals that have shown most promise in laboratory and greenhouse studies are phenylphosphorodiamidate [PPD] and N-(n-butyl)thiophosphorictriamide [NBPT], but they seldom work effectively in the field. PPD decomposes rapidly when the pH departs from neutrality, and NBPT must be converted to the oxygen analogue [N-(n-butyl)phosphorictriamide, NBPTO] for it to be effective. Our field studies in Thailand showed that NH3 loss is markedly reduced when PPD is added with the algicide terbutryn. The studies also showed that a mixture of PPD and NBPT was even more effective than either PPD or NBPT alone. It appears that initially PPD inhibited urease activity, and during this time at least part of the NBPT was converted to NBPTO; then as the activity of PPD declined, NBPTO inhibited the hydrolysis of urea. The combined urease inhibitor treatment reduced NH3 loss from 15 to 3% of the applied N, and increased grain yield from 3.6 to 4.1 t ha−1.

Key words

denitrification nitrogen loss phosphoroamides urea hydrolysis urease volatilization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Austin ER, Bradford TJ and Lupin M (1984) High performance liquid chromatographic determination and hydrolysis studies of phenyl phosphorodiamidate, a urease inhibitor. J Agric Food Chem 32: 1090–1096Google Scholar
  2. Buresh RJ, De Datta SK, Padilla JL and Chua TT (1988a) Potential of inhibitors for increasing response of lowland rice to urea fertilization. Agron J 80: 947–952Google Scholar
  3. Buresh RJ, De Datta SK, Padilla JL and Samson MI (1988b) Field evaluation of two urease inhibitors with transplanted lowland rice. Agron J 80: 763–768Google Scholar
  4. Byrnes BH and Christianson CB (1988) Development of a urease inhibitor from N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide. Agron Abs 212Google Scholar
  5. Byrnes BH, Savant NK and Craswell ET (1983) Effect of a urease inhibitor phenyl phosphorodiamidate on the efficiency of urea applied to rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 270–274Google Scholar
  6. Cai GX, Freney JR, Muirhead WA, Simpson JR, Chen DL and Trevitt ACF (1989) The evaluation of urease inhibitors to improve the efficiency of urea as a N-source for flooded rice. Soil Biol Biochem 21: 137–145Google Scholar
  7. Cao ZH, De Datta SK and Fillery IRP (1984) Effect of placement methods on floodwater properties and recovery of applied nitrogen (15N-labeled urea) in wetland rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 196–203Google Scholar
  8. Chai HS and Bremner JM (1987) Evaluation of some phosphoroamides as soil urease inhibitors. Biol Fertil Soils 3: 189–194Google Scholar
  9. Chai HS, Bremner JM and McCarty GW (1988) Effect of N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide on hydrolysis of urea by plant, microbial and soil ureases. Agron Abs 213Google Scholar
  10. Chaiwanakupt P, Freney JR, Keerthisinghe DG, Phongpan S and Blakeley RL (1994) Use of urease and nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrogen loss and increase grain yield of flooded rice. Biol Fertil Soils (In press)Google Scholar
  11. Craswell ET, De Datta SK, Obcemea WN and Hartantyo M (1981) Time and mode of nitrogen fertilizer application to tropical wetland rice. Fert Res 2: 247–259Google Scholar
  12. Creason GL, Schmitt MR, Douglass EA and Hendrickson LL (1990) Urease inhibitory activity associated with N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide is due to formation of its oxon analogue. Soil Biol Biochem 22: 209–211Google Scholar
  13. De Datta SK, Trevitt ACF, Freney JR, Obcemea WN, Real JG and Simpson JR (1989) Measuring nitrogen losses from lowland rice using bulk aerodynamic and nitrogen-15 balance methods. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53: 1275–1281Google Scholar
  14. Denmead OT (1983) Micrometeorological methods for measuring gaseous losses of nitrogen in the field. In: Freney JR and Simpson JR (eds) Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant - Soil Systems, pp 133–157. Martinus Nijhoff / Dr W Junk Publishers, The Hague, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  15. Denmead OT, Freney JR and Simpson JR 1982 Dynamics of ammonia volatilization during furrow irrigation of maize. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46: 149–155Google Scholar
  16. Fillery IRP and Vlek PLG (1986) Reappraisal of the significance of ammonia volatilization as an N loss mechanism in flooded rice fields. Fert Res 9: 79–98Google Scholar
  17. Fillery IRP, Simpson JR and De Datta SK (1986) Contribution of ammonia volatilization to total nitrogen loss after application of urea to wetland rice fields. Fert Res 8: 193–202Google Scholar
  18. Freney JR, Leuning R, Simpson JR, Denmead OT and Muirhead WA (1985) Estimating ammonia volatilization from flooded rice fields by simplified techniques. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49: 1049–1054Google Scholar
  19. Keerthisinghe DG and Freney JR (1994) Inhibition of urease activity in flooded soils: effect of thiophosphorictriamides and phosphorictriamides. Soil Biol Biochem 26: 1527–1533Google Scholar
  20. Leuning R, Freney JR, Denmead OT and Simpson JR (1985) A sampler for measuring atmospheric ammonia flux. Atmos Environ 18: 1583–1592Google Scholar
  21. Luo Qi-xiang, Freney JR, Keerthisinghe DG and Peoples MB (1994) Inhibition of urease activity in flooded soils by phenylphosphorodiamidate and N-(n-butyl)thiophosphorictriamide. Soil Biol Biochem 26: 1059–1065Google Scholar
  22. Martens DA and Bremner JM (1984) Effectiveness of phospho-roamides for retardation of urea hydrolysis in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 302–305Google Scholar
  23. McCarty GW, Bremner JM and Chai HS (1989) Effect of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide on hydrolysis of urea by plant, microbial, and soil urease. Biol Fertil Soils 8: 123–127Google Scholar
  24. Mikkelsen DS, De Datta SK and Obcemea WN (1978) Ammonia volatilization losses from flooded rice soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 725–730Google Scholar
  25. Mulvaney RL and Bremner JM (1979) A modified diacetyl-monoxime method for colorimetric determination of urea in soil extracts. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 10: 1163–1170Google Scholar
  26. Orion (1983) Instruction Manual for Ammonia Electrode Model 95-12. Orion Research Inc., Cambridge, MassGoogle Scholar
  27. Simpson JR and Freney JR (1988) Interacting processes in gaseous nitrogen loss from urea applied to flooded rice fields. In: Pushparajah E, Husin A and Bachik AT (eds) Int Symp on Urea Technol and Utilization, pp 281–290. Malaysian Society of Soil Science, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Simpson JR, Freney JR, Wetselaar R, Muirhead WA, Leuning R and Denmead OT (1984) Transformations and losses of urea nitrogen after application to flooded rice. Aust J Agric Res 35: 189–200Google Scholar
  29. Simpson JR, Freney JR, Muirhead WA and Leuning R (1985) Effects of phenylphosphorodiamidate and dicyandiamide on nitrogen loss from flooded rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49: 1426–1431Google Scholar
  30. SMSS (1983) Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Soil Management Support Services, Technical Monograph No 6, United States Department of Agriculture. US Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Stangel PJ and Harris GT (1987) Trends in production, trade and use of fertilizers: A global perspective. In: Freney JR, Wetselaar R, Trevitt ACF and Simpson JR (eds) Efficiency of Nitrogen Fertilizers for Rice, pp 1–26. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banõs, The Philippines.Google Scholar
  32. Vlek PLG and Byrnes BH (1986) The efficacy and loss of fertilizer N in lowland rice. Fert Res 9: 131–147Google Scholar
  33. Vlek PLG and Craswell ET (1981) Ammonia volatilization from flooded soils. Fert Res 2: 227–245Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Phongpan
    • 1
  • J. R. Freney
    • 2
  • D. G. Keerthisinghe
    • 2
  • P. Chaiwanakupt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgricultureDivision of Agricultural ChemistryBangkhen, BangkokThailand
  2. 2.Division of Plant Industry, CSIROCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations