Fertilizer research

, Volume 43, Issue 1–3, pp 1–4 | Cite as

Higher and better yields with less environmental pollution in Egypt through balanced fertilizer use

  • Mohamed M. El-Fouly
  • A. F. A. Fawzi


Nitrogen use per unit area in Egyptian agriculture is over 300 kg ha−1. An annual average increase of about 2% till year 2000 was estimated. Fertilizers use is characterised by excessive N application, moderate P use and neglection of K and micronutrients. Consequently, nutrient imbalance occurs in crop plants. Subsidising N fertilizers resulted in their misuse and increasing losses. Efficiency of N use in different areas and crops is low. High nitrate concentrations were detected in drainage as well as ground water. Subsidy was removed and fertilizers handling was left to the free market in 1992/93, which resulted in drastic price increases. It could be demonstrated for many years and in farmers fields that yields can be considerably increased (20%) through balanced fertilizers use based on soil testing and plant analysis and adjusted according to the prevailing farming system, leading to more return and less N-use. Use of micronutrients foliar fertilizers leads to increase in root growth and higher uptake of macronutrients. Use of relatively high rates of fertilizers is still a must, however it should be optimised to obtain the highest possible efficiency. Making crop and location specific fertilizer recommendations available to farmers helps in increasing high quality yields, which results in high economic benefits, keeping agricultural production sustainable and decreasing pollution.

Key words

Egypt fertilizers use optimization N-losses micronutrients soil testing plant analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdalla FE and Mobarak Zeinab M (1992a) Shoot intake of nutrients from different micronutrient fertilizer formulations in fababean. Af J Agric Sci 19: 147–160Google Scholar
  2. Abdalla FE and Mobarak Zeinab M (1992b) Uptake of NPK and Mg by fababean after foliar treatment with chelated and non-chelated micronutrient fertilizers. Af J Agric Sci 19: 161–172Google Scholar
  3. Boutros BN, Mandour MS and Fawzi AFA (1988) Growth and nutritive status of sour orange rootstock to micronutrients application. Egypt J Soil Sci 28: 139–151Google Scholar
  4. Central Authority for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMS) (1992) Statistical Yearbook, pp 62–65Google Scholar
  5. Eid MT, Hammissa MR, Serry A, Abd El-Samie M, El-Banna E and Omar S (1974) Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied to wheat as affected by time of application. Agric Res Rev 52: 125–133Google Scholar
  6. Eid RAH (1994) Developing a simulation model for identifiying optimum fertilizer treatments for a crop varieties M. Sc. Thesis, Cairo, UniversityGoogle Scholar
  7. El-Fouly MM (1983) Micronutrients in arid and semi-arid areas : Level in soil and plants and the needs for fertilizers with reference to Egypt. In: Proc. 15th Coll. Inter. Potash Inst., Bern. p163Google Scholar
  8. El-Fouly MM (1993) Fertilizers. In: Craig GM (ed) Agriculture of Egypt, pp 363–382. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Fouly MM, Fawzi AF, Firgany AH and El-Baz FK (1991) Uptake and removal of potassium by maize and effect of potassium sulphate on yield. Tropen-landwirt Z Trop Subtrop 92: 73–97Google Scholar
  10. El-Sayed AA, Abdalla FE and Fawzi AFA (1992) Uptake and partitioning of micronutrients in fababean grown on alluvial soil. Af. J Agric Sci 19: 173–180Google Scholar
  11. Fawzi AFA (1992) Fate of nitrogen fertilizer in soil to major crops. Proc. Egypto - German Seminar on Environmental and Cultural Aspects of Fertilizer Use, 25–28 Nov. 1991, Cairo. El-Fouly (ed) pp 23–38 (In Arabic)Google Scholar
  12. Fawzi AFA and El-Fouly MM (1993) Inputs for computerized expert system for fertilizer recommendations in Fayoum governorate. NRC-GTZ report 94p (Unpubl.)Google Scholar
  13. Fawzi AFA, Firgany AH, Rezk AI, Kishk MA and Shaaban MM (1983) Response ofVicia faba bean to K and micronutrient fertilizers. Egypt J Bot 26: 113–121Google Scholar
  14. Hammissa MR, Abdel Samie ME, El-Banna E and Khadr MS (1974) Corn fertilization programme in A.R.E: Utilization of nitrogen by maize as affected by time and method of application. Agric Res Rev 52: 25–48Google Scholar
  15. Halliday DJ and Trenkel ME (Eds) (1992) IFA World Fertilizer Use Manual. Publ. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris. 632pGoogle Scholar
  16. Mobarak Zeinab M and Abdalla FE (1992) Nutrients uptake by maize plants as affected by foliar micronutrients application. Afr J Agric Sci 19: 153–205Google Scholar
  17. Mobarak Zeinab M, El-Sayed AA, Abdalla FE and El-Bendary AA (1992) Differential responses of soybean varieties to micronutrients foliar application. Afr J Agric Sci 19: 123–136Google Scholar
  18. NRC-GTZ (1991) Multiptlier Program for Optimizing Fertilizer Use. Report 15. Fawzi AFA (ed) 254p. (Unpubl.) (In Arabic)Google Scholar
  19. NRC-GTZ (1993) Report on serving farmers on ARO lands season 1991/92. Ed. Fawzi MM and El-Sayed AA (eds) 99p. (Unpubl.) (In Arabic)Google Scholar
  20. NRC-GTZ (1994) Report on serving farmers on ARO lands, Season 1993/94. Rezk AI (ed) 72p. (In Arabic)Google Scholar
  21. Nour UM and El-Syed AA (1991) Multiplier Development Extension program for Potato Growers in Etai El-Baroud, Beheira Governorate, Egypt. In: El-Fouly MM (ed) Report. 87p. (Unpubl.) (In Arabic with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Principal Bank for Development and Agricultural Credit-PBDAC (1991) PBDAC - Circulation No. 136 (Unpubl.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed M. El-Fouly
    • 1
  • A. F. A. Fawzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Botany DepartmentNational Research CentreCairo - DokkiEgypt

Personalised recommendations