Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Hyperacute, neutrophilic, and localized forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: A review

  • Review Article
  • Published:
Acta Neuropathologica Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Summary

The histopathology of the ordinary form of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is subject to considerable variation, depending on the duration and severity of the disease as well as on the age and species of the animal subject. In addition there are four distinct varieties that are characterized according to manner of production, location in the central nervous system (CNS) and histopathology. Localized EAE differs from ordinary EAE primarily in its topographic restriction to the environs of a CNS injury. Hyperacute EAE is produced with the aid of pertussis vaccine as sole or ancillary adjuvant; the histopathology features exudation of fibrin, edema fluid and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The same process occurs in localized hyperacute EAE, but lesions are restricted to the perimeter of a CNS injury. All these forms of EAE can be produced by active immunization with CNS antigen and adjuvants, or by passive immunization with living lymphoid cells taken from actively immunized donors. Neutrophilic EAE has been described only after passive immunization inasmuch as it requires the transfer of encephalitogenic cells from a donor to a recipient with a drug-induced relative neutrophilia. The lesions of neutrophilic EAE contain a remarkable number of neutrophils, but fibrin and edema are not conspicuous. The technique of passive immunization has made it possible to produce this unique variant of EAE, and it has also facilitated studies of the evolution of lesions, the role of nonspecific cells, the effects of multiple attacks, and the effects of therapeutic modalities in all the forms of EAE.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alvord, E. C., Jr.: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and allergic neuro-encephalopathies. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 9, P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, Eds., pp. 500 to 571. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. 1970

    Google Scholar 

  • Behan, P. O., Kies, M. W., Lisak, R. P., Sheremata, W., Lamarche, J. B.: Immunologic mechanisms in experimental encephalomyelitis in nonhuman primates. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.)29, 4–9 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bogdanove, L. H., Clark, G.: The induction of exacerbations of allergic meningoencephalomyelitis. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.16, 57–60 (1957)

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark, G., Bogdanove, L. H.: The induction of the lesions of allergic meningoencephalomyelitis in a predetermined location. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.14, 433–437 (1955)

    Google Scholar 

  • Falk, G. A., Kies, M. W., Alvord, E. C., Jr.: Passive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms of suppression. J. Immunol.103, 1248–1253 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferraro, A., Roizin, L.: Neuropathologic, perivenous encephalomyelitis, diffuse encephalomyelitis, patchy gliosis. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.13, 60–89 (1954)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerber, R. C., Whitehouse, M. W., Orr, K. J.: Effect of gold preparations on the development and passive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)140, 1379–1384 (1972)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoenig, E. M., Levine, S.: Three localized forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: An ultrastructural comparison. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.33, 251–259 (1974)

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, A., Levine, S.: Further studies on the inhibition of allergic encephalomyelitis byl-asparaginase. J. Immunol.113, 367–370 (1974)

    Google Scholar 

  • Lampert, P.: Electron microscopic studies on ordinary and hyperacute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)9, 99–126 (1967)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S.: Localization of allergic encephalomyelitis in lesions of cyanide encephalopathy. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.19, 238–247 (1960)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S.: Presidential address: Allergic encephalomyelitis: Cellular transformation and vascular blockade. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.29, 6–20 (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S.: Relationship of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to human disease. In: Immunological Disorders of the Nervous System. Res. Publ. Ass. Res. nerv. ment. Dis.49, 33–49 (1971)

  • Levine, S., Hoenig, E. M.: Induced localization of allergic adrenalitis and encephalomyelitis at sites of thermal injury. J. Immunol.100, 1310–1318 (1968)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Hoenig, E. M.: A new form of localized allergic encephalomyelitis featuring polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes. Amer. J. Path.64, 13–30 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Sowinski, R.: Passive transfer of allergic adrenalitis and encephalomyelitis with whole blood. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)129, 221–222 (1968)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Sowinski, R.: Reduction of allergic encephalomyelitis incubation period to five days. Amer. J. Path.56, 97–109 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Sowinski, R.: The role of mononuclear cell deficiency in the production of neutrophilic allergic encephalomyelitis: Parabiosis experiments. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)141, 664–668 (1972)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Sowinski, R.: Hyperacute allergic encephalomyelitis: A localized form produced by passive transfer and pertussis vaccine. Amer. J. Path.73, 247–260 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Strebel, R.: Allergic encephalomyelitis: Inhibition of cellular passive transfer by exogenous and endogenous steroids. Experientia (Basel)25, 189–190 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Effect of induced localization on incidence and distribution of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Neurology (Minneap.)10, 1090–1095 (1960)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Studies on the mechanisms of altered susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Amer. J. Path.39, 419–441 (1961)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: A hyperacute form of allergic encephalomyelitis. Amer. J. Path.47, 61–88 (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Passive transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis: Acceleration by adrenalectomy. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)123, 301–303 (1966a)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Exacerbation and transformation of allergic encephalomyelitis by pertussis vaccine. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)122, 115–118 (1966b)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Central nervous system hemorrhages induced by heparin in rats with allergic encephalomyelitis. Thrombos. Diathes. haemorrh. (Stuttg.)16, 296–301 (1966c)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Hyperacute allergic encephalomyelitis: Lymphatic system as site of adjuvant effect of pertussis vaccine. Amer. J. Path.50, 465–483 (1967a)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J.: Rapid passive transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol.90, 1277–1285 (1967b)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Zimmerman, H. M., Wenk, E. J., Gonatas, N. K.: Experimental leukoencephalopathies due to implantation of foreign substances. Amer. J. Path.42, 97–117 (1963)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Hirano, A., Zimmermann, H. M.: Hyperacute allergic encephalomyelitis. Electron microscopic observations. Amer. J. Path.47, 209–221 (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Simon, J., Wenk, E. J.: Edema of the spinal cord in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)123, 539–541 (1966a)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J., Devlin, H. B., Pieroni, R. E., Levine, L.: Hyperacute allergic encephalomyelitis: Adjuvant effect of pertussis vaccines and extracts. J. Immunol.97, 363–368 (1966b)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Hoenig, E. M., Wenk, E. J.: Altered distribution of lesions after repeated passive transfers of allergic encephalomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)126, 454–458 (1967a)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wenk, E. J., Hoenig, E. M.: Passive transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis between inbred rat strains: Correlation with transplantation antigens. Transplantation5, 534–541 (1967b)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Prineas, J., Scheinberg, L. C.: Allergic encephalomyelitis: Inhibition of cellular passive transfer by x-radiation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)131, 986–990 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Hoenig, E. M., Kies, M. W.: Allergic encephalomyelitis: Immunologically specific inhibition of cellular passive transfer by encephalitogenic basic proteins. Clin. exp. Immunol.6, 503–517 (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Cochrane, C. G., Carpenter, C. B., Behan, P. O.: Allergic encephalomyelitis: Effect of complement depletion with cobra venom. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)138, 285–289 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  • Morse, S. I., Barron, B. A.: Studies on the leukocytosis and lymphocytosis induced by Bordetella pertussis. III. The distribution of transfused lymphocytes in pertussis-treated and normal mice. J. exp. Med.132, 663–672 (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  • Oldstone, M. B. A., Dixon, F. J.: Immunohistochemical study of allergic encephalomyelitis. Amer. J. Path.52, 251–263 (1968)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pabst, H., Dupuy, J.-M.: Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis with plasma factors. Fed. Proc.29, 622 (abstract) (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  • Paterson, P. Y.: Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by means of lymph node cells. J. exp. Med.111, 119–136 (1960)

    Google Scholar 

  • Paterson, P. Y.: Experimental autoimmune (allergic) encephalomyelitis. In: Textbook of Immunopathology, Vol. I, P. A. Miescher and H. J. Muller-Eberhard, Eds., pp. 132–149. New York: Grune and Stratton 1968

    Google Scholar 

  • Paterson, P. Y., Hanson, M. A.: Cyclophosphamide inhibition of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis rats. J. Immunol.103, 1311–1316 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Purdy, C. W., Loan, R. W.: Effect of irradiation on adoptive immunization in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Int. Arch. Allergy40, 842–850 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  • Raine, C. S., Wiśniewski, H., Prineas, J.: An ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination and remyelination. II. Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the peripheral nervous system. Lab. Invest.21, 316–327 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Robson, G. S. M., McPherson, T. A., MacKay, I. R.: A histological dose response effect in guinea pigs injected with graded amounts of basic protein and peptides from human brain. Brit. J. exp. Path.52, 338–344 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, S. B., Waksman, B. H.: Passive transfer and labelling studies on the cell infiltrate in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Path.99, 237–244 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, S. H.: Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis by lymph node cells in inbred guinea pigs. Science134, 619–620 (1961)

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, S. H., Lerner, E. M., II: Chronic disseminated allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.122, 227–240 (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, S. H., Lerner, E. M., II, Goode, J. H.: Acute and chronic autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Age, strain, and sex dependency. The importance of the source of antigen. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.)132, 341–344 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, S. H., Lerner, E. M., II, Myers, R. E., Niemann, W. H.: Autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ocular lesions in monkeys sensitized during the neonatal period. Science151, 473–475 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wenk, E. J., Levine, S., Warren, B.: Passive transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis with blood leucocytes. Nature (Lond.)214, 803–804 (1967)

    Google Scholar 

  • Werdelin, O., McCluskey, R. T.: The nature and the specificity of mononuclear cells in experimental autoimmune inflammations and the mechanisms leading to their accumulation. J. exp. Med.133, 1242–1263 (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  • Werdelin, O.: The origin and specificity of mononuclear cells in experimental autoimmune inflammations. Acta path. microbiol. scand., Sect. A, Suppl. No. 232, 1–91 (1972)

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitehouse, D. J., Whitehouse, M. W., Pearson, C. M.: Passive transfer of adjuvant-induced arthritis and allergic encephalomyelitis in rats using thoracic duct lymphocytes. Nature (Lond.)224, 1322 (1969)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Levine, S. Hyperacute, neutrophilic, and localized forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: A review. Acta Neuropathol 28, 179–189 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00719023

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00719023

Key words

Navigation