Foundations of Physics

, Volume 8, Issue 11–12, pp 921–926 | Cite as

Clarification of an apparent asymmetry in electromagnetic theory

  • L. M. Stephenson


The status of the advanced potential solution in electromagnetic theory is analyzed and assessed. It is shown that the advanced potential solution does not violate a causality argument and that its existence in electromagnetic theory is on an exactly equal footing with the retarded potential solution. The general potential solution is thus completely symmetric. It is further shown that there is no “one-sidedness” in nature; oscillating electrons and orbiting electrons are just as good at absorbing energy as they are at radiating it. These conclusions are sufficient to invalidate a number of theoretical models.


Theoretical Model Clarification Potential Solution Equal Footing Electromagnetic Theory 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. M. Stephenson
    • 1
  1. 1.University CollegeLondonEngland

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