Environmental and Ecological Statistics

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 7–19 | Cite as

Statistics: an essential technology in environmental research and management

  • C. Radhakrishna Rao


Statistical methods as developed and used in decision making and scientific research are of recent origin. The logical foundations of statistics are still under discussion and some care is needed in applying the existing methodology and interpreting results. Some pitfalls in statistical data analysis are discussed and the importance of cross examination of data (or exploratory data analysis) before using specific statistical techniques are emphasized. Comments are made on the treatment of outliers, choice of stochastic models, use of multivariate techniques and the choice of software (expert systems) in statistical analysis. The need for developing new methodology with particular relevance to environmental research and policy is stressed.


canonical coordinates cluster anlaysis cross examination of data discriminant analysis expert opinions exploratory data analysis inferential data analysis regression 


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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Radhakrishna Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of StatisticsPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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