Journal of Muscle Research & Cell Motility

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 507–512 | Cite as

Resolution of the competitive inhibitory effects of lithium and AMPPNP on the beat frequency of ATP-reactivated, demembranated, sea urchin sperm flagella

  • E. F. Pate
  • C. J. Brokaw


About half of the inhibitory effect on the beat frequency of sea urchin spermatozoa flagella by β, γ-imido-adenosine-5′-triphosphate (AMPPNP) previously reported by Okuno & Brokaw (1981) was actually the result of inhibition by lithium resulting from the use of a tetralithium salt of AMPPNP. Li+ (or LiATP3−) acts as a competitive inhibitor of beat frequency, with aKi for Li+ of about 30 mM. Under improved reactivation conditions which reduce theKm for beat frequency to about 0.1 mM, theKi for lithium-free MgAMPPNP2− is about 2.3 mM, and magnesium pyrophosphate (MgPP i ), which may be an equivalent ligand, gives aKi of 3.4 mM.


Magnesium Lithium Triphosphate Pyrophosphate Competitive Inhibitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BROKAW, C. J. (1975) Effects of viscosity and ATP concentration on the movement of reactivated sea-urchin sperm flagella.J. expl. Biol. 62 701–19.Google Scholar
  2. BROKAW, C. J. (1977) CO2-inhibition of the amplitude of bending of Triton-demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella.J. expl. Biol. 71 229–40.Google Scholar
  3. BROKAW, C. J. (1979) Calcium-induced asymmetrical beating of Triton demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella.J. Cell Biol. 82 401–11.Google Scholar
  4. BROKAW, C. J. (1985) Cyclic AMP-dependent activation of sea urchin and tunicate sperm motility. In Hormone Action and Testicular Function.Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 438 132–41.Google Scholar
  5. GIBBONS, B. H. & GIBBONS, I. R. (1974) Properties of flagellar ‘rigor waves’ formed by abrupt removal of adenosine triphosphate from actively swimming sea urchin sperm.J. Cell Biol. 63 970–85.Google Scholar
  6. GIBBONS, I. R., EVANS, J. A. & GIBBONS, B. H. (1982) Acetate anions stabilize the latency of dynein 1 ATPase and increase and velocity of tubule sliding in reactivated sperm flagella.Cell. Mot. Suppl.1, 181–4.Google Scholar
  7. GIBBONS, B. H. & GIBBONS, I. R. (1984) Lithium reversibly inhibits microtubule-based motility in sperm flagella.Nature 309 560–2.Google Scholar
  8. JOHNSON, K. A. (1983) The pathway of ATP hydrolysis by dynein.J. Biol. Chem. 258 13 825–32.Google Scholar
  9. OKUNO, M. & BROKAW, C. J. (1979) Inhibition of movement of Triton-demembranated sea-urchin sperm flagella by Mg2+, ATP4− and Pi.J. Cell. Sci. 38 105–23.Google Scholar
  10. OKUNO, M. & BROKAW, C. J. (1981) Effects of AMPPNP and vanadate on the mechanochemical crossbridge cycle in flagella.J. Musc. Res. Cell Motility 2 373–99.Google Scholar
  11. PATE, E. & COOKE, R. (1985) Inhibition of muscle contraction by adenosine 5′ (β,γ-imido) triphosphate and by pyrophosphate.Biophys. J. (In press).Google Scholar
  12. PENNINGROTH, S. M. & WITMAN, G. B. (1978) Effects of adenylylimidodiphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate analog, on reactivated and rigor wave sea urchin sperm.J. Cell Biol. 79 827–32.Google Scholar
  13. PORTER, M. E. & JOHNSON, K. A. (1983) Transient state kinetic analysis of the ATP-induced dissociation of the dynein-microtubule complex.J. Biol. Chem. 258 6582–7.Google Scholar
  14. SILLEN, L. G. & MARTELL, A. E. (1964)Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes. London: The Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  15. TAKAHASHI, M. & TONOMURA, Y. (1978) Binding of 30s dynein with the B-tubule of the outer doublet of axonemes fromTetrahymena pyriformis and adenosine triphosphate-induced dissociation of the complex.J. Biochem. 84 1339–55.Google Scholar
  16. TAKAHASHI, M. & TONOMURA, Y. (1979) Kinetic properties of dynein ATPase fromTetrahymena pyriformis.J. Biochem. 86 413–23.Google Scholar
  17. YOUNT, R. G., BABCOCK, D., BALLANTYNE, W. & OJALA, D. (1971) Adenylyl imidodiphosphate, an adenosine triphosphate analog containing a P-N-P linkage.Biochemistry 10 2484–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. F. Pate
    • 1
  • C. J. Brokaw
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of BiologyCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations