Advertisement

Rheologica Acta

, Volume 34, Issue 6, pp 513–524 | Cite as

Rheology and processing of salad dressing emulsions

  • Jose Maria Franco
  • Antonio Guerrero
  • Crispulo Gallegos
Original Contribution

Abstract

In order to study the influence that the processing parameters exert on the rheology and stability of salad dressing emulsions, both steady-state shear and oscillatory measurements, as well as droplet size distribution tests were performed. Emulsions containing a mixture of egg yolk and sucrose stearate as emulsifier were prepared using two different emulsification machines, a rotor-stator turbine and a colloidal mill. An increase both in energy input and in the temperature of processing yields higher values of the steady-state viscosity, an increase in emulsion stability and, generally, lower droplet size and lower polydispersity. Furthermore, a plateau region in the loss modulus versus frequency plots appears as the energy input and processing temperature increase. This effect has been analyzed by calculating the relaxation spectra of these emulsions. The results have been discussed taking into account the relationship between several structural parameters, such as interparticle interactions and droplet size distribution, and the rheological response of these emulsions.

Key words

Droplet size emulsion linear viscoelasticity mayonnaise viscosity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barnes HA, Hutton JF, Walters K (1989) An introduction to rheology. Rheology series 3, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumgaertel M, Schausberger A, Winter HH (1990) The relaxation of polymers with linear flexible chains of uniform length. Rheol Acta 29:400–408Google Scholar
  3. Baumgaertel M, De Rosa ME, Machado J, Masse M, Winter HH (1992) The relaxation time spectrum of nearly monodisperse polybutadiene melts. Rheol Acta 31:75–82Google Scholar
  4. Bird RB, Armstrong RC, Hassager O, Curtis CE (1987) Dynamics of polymeric liquid, 2nd ed. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Calahorro C, Muñoz J, Berjano M, Guerrero A, Gallegos C (1992) Flow behaviour of sucrose stearate/water systems. J Am Oil Chem Soc 69:660–666Google Scholar
  6. Carrillo AR, Kokini JL (1988) Effect of egg yolk and egg yolk+salt on rheological properties and particle size distribution of model oil-in-water salad dressing emulsions. J Food Sci 53:1352–1355Google Scholar
  7. Cavallo JL, Chang DL, Saleeb FZ (1990) Formulation considerations in emulsion preparation and stability. AIChE Symposium Series 86:16–24Google Scholar
  8. Clark DC, Wilde PJ, Wilson DR, Wunsteck RC (1992) The interaction of sucrose esters with β-lactoglobulin β-casein from bovine milk. Food Hydrocoll 6:173–186Google Scholar
  9. Chambon F, Winter HH (1985) Stopping of crosslinking reaction in PDMS polymer at the gel point. Polym Bull 13:499–503Google Scholar
  10. De Rosa ME, Winter HH (1994) The effect of entanglements on the rheological behavior of polybutadiene critical gels. Rheol Acta 33:220–237Google Scholar
  11. Dickinson E (1989) Food colloids — An overview. Colloids Surf 42:191–204Google Scholar
  12. Dickinson E (1994) Interactions in proteinstabilized emulsions. In: Gallegos C (ed) Progress and trends in rheology, IV. Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp 227–229Google Scholar
  13. Dickinson E, Stainsby G (1987) Progress in the formulation of food emulsions and foams. Food Technol 41:75–81Google Scholar
  14. Dickinson E, Tanai S (1992) Temperature dependence of the competitive displacement of protein for the emulsion droplet surface by surfactants. Food Hydrocoll 6:163–171Google Scholar
  15. Doi M, Edwards SF (1986) The theory of polymer dynamics. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Ebert G, Platz G, Rehage H (1988) Elastic and rheological properties of hydrocarbons gels. Ber Bunsen-Ges Phys Chem 92:1158–1164Google Scholar
  17. Ferry JD (1980) Viscoelastic properties of polymers, 3rd ed. Wildy, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Figoni PI, Shoemaker CF (1983) Characterization of time dependent flow properties of mayonnaise under steady shear. J Texture Stud 14:431–442Google Scholar
  19. Franco JM, Berjano M, Guerrero A, Munoz J, Gallegos C (1995a) Flow behaviour and stability of light mayonnaise containing a mixture of egg yolk and sucrose stearate as emulsifiers. Food Hydrocoll 9:111–121Google Scholar
  20. Franco JM, Trujillo JE, Algeciras JL, Gallegos C (1995b) Estabilización de emulsiones alimentarias aceite en aqua por modificación del contenido en emulsionante y estabilizante. Alim Equip Tecnol (accepted)Google Scholar
  21. Gallegos C, Berjano M, Choplin L (1992) Linear viscoelastic behaviour of commercial and model mayonnaise. J Rheol 36:465–478Google Scholar
  22. Kato A, Nakai S (1980) Hydrophobicity determined by fluorescence probe method and its correlation with surface properties of proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 624:13–20Google Scholar
  23. Muñoz J, Sherman P (1992) Dynamic viscoelastic properties of some commercial salad dressings. J Texture Stud 21:411–426Google Scholar
  24. Pal R, Rhodes E (1989) Viscosity/concentration relationships for emulsions. J Rheol 33:1021–1045Google Scholar
  25. Partal P, Guerrero A, Berjano M, Muñoz J, Gallegos C (1994) Flow behaviour and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by a sucrose palmitate. J Texture Stud 25:331–348Google Scholar
  26. Rahalkar RR (1992) Viscoelastic properties of oil-water emulsions. In: Rao MA, Steffe JF (eds) Viscoelastic properties of food. Elsevier, London, pp 317–354Google Scholar
  27. Rivas HJ, Sherman P (1983) Soy and meat proteins as food emulsion stabilizers. 2. Influence of emulsification temperature, NaCl and methanol on the viscoelastic properties of corn oil-in-water emulsions incorporating acid precipitated soy protein. J Texture Stud 14:267–275Google Scholar
  28. Tadros ThF (1990) Use of viscoelastic measurements in studying interactions in concentrated dispersions. Langmuir 6:28–35Google Scholar
  29. Tschoegl NW (1989) The phenomenological theory of linear viscoelastic behaviour. Springer-Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  30. Walstra P (1983) Formation of emulsions. In: Becher P (ed) Encyclopedia of emulsion technology, vol. I. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 57–127Google Scholar
  31. Wu S (1989) Chain structure and entanglement. J Polym Sci 27:723–741Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose Maria Franco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Antonio Guerrero
    • 1
  • Crispulo Gallegos
    • 1
  1. 1.Dpto. Ingenieria QuimicaUniversidad de SevillaSevillaSpain
  2. 2.Hijos de Ybarra S.A.SevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations