, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 49–56 | Cite as

Some effects of morphine and amphetamine on intellectual functions and mood

  • Wayne O. Evans
  • Richard P. Smith
Original Investigations


Four groups of 15 undergraduate students received either 10 mg of d-amphetamine sulfate, 16 mg of morphine sulfate, a mixture of 16 mg of morphine sulfate and 10 mg of d-amphetamine sulfate, or a lactose placebo under double blind conditions. These subjects were given, both before and after the administration of the drugs, a series of tests utilizing the Guilford structure of intellect model, the Nowlis and Nowlis mood adjective check list, and the McClelland Need Achievement Scale. It was shown that certain tests were differentially effected by the drugs. Of particular interest was an enhancement by morphine of all tests which were based upon a logical judgment and selection of an answer among a limited number of alternatives. D-amphetamine was found to enhance the performance on scales different from those most enhanced by morphine. It was found that d-amphetamine enhanced the need to achieve and elevated the sense of activation of the subjects. These results were discussed in terms of possible theoretical consequences.


Placebo Morphine Lactose Amphetamine Undergraduate Student 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne O. Evans
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard P. Smith
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of PsychologyUS Army Medical Research LaboratoryFort Knox
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineUniversity of LouisvilleLouisville

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