Electron microscopy of the bone-hydroxylapatite interface from a human dental implant
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A titanium implant coated with hydroxylapatite was observed after removal from a human jaw. The hydroxylapatite coating and bonded bone were observed in the scanning electron microscope. The bone apatite interface was thinned to electron transparency by a special technique and observed in the transmission electron microscope at high magnification. Bone bonded directly to the apatite coating, and there was no evidence for a foreign-body reaction, fibrous tissue, or any altered structure in bone or ceramic at the bone-apatite interface. There was no transition layer between bone and apatite to atomic resolution. Lattice imaging of the ceramic coating and the direct attachment of bone to it provide evidence that the bone bonds chemically to the apatite. Hydroxylapatite is a most desirable implant material, and coating it on a metal substrate gives a strong, impact-resistant implant.
KeywordsTitanium Apatite High Magnification Special Technique Fibrous Tissue
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