Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 23, Issue 2–3, pp 157–176 | Cite as

Fertilizers in agroforestry systems

  • L. T. Szott
  • D. C. L. Kass
Article

Abstract

This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in determining fertilizer response; greater accumulation of organic residues, slower growth under shade, and longer periods of nutrient uptake probably also contribute to the relatively smaller fertilizer response of the perennial shade systems and home gardens. Considerable knowledge gaps exist regarding the breakdown of organic residues, and interactions between mineral and organic amendments. Systems based on annual crops (e.g., alley cropping) are likely to be less nutrient-efficient and sustainable than systems based on perennial crops, due to reduced fixation and transfer of N to the crops, the tendency of the trees to compete for and sequester nutrients, relatively high P requirements of the crops, and the high labor cost of tree management. The possible benefits of fertilization of specific components in home gardens, and relative advantages of including low-value tree legumes, high-value shade trees, and fertilization in shaded perennial systems are only beginning to receive research attention.

Key words

alley cropping fertilization home gardens nutrient cycling organic fertilizer shaded perennials 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber JD, Melillo JM and McClaugherty CA (1990) Predicting long-term patterns of mass loss, nitrogen dynamics, and soil organic matter formation from initial fine litter chemistry in temperate forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal Botany 68:2201–2208Google Scholar
  2. Acquaye DK (1963) Some significance of organic phosphorus mineralization in the phosphorus nutrition of cocoa in Ghana. Plant Soil 19:65–80Google Scholar
  3. Adepetu JA and Corey RB (1976) Organic phosphorus as a predictor of plant available phosphorus in soils of Southern Nigeria. Soil Science 122:159–164Google Scholar
  4. Akenorah Y, Akafori GS and Adri AK (1974) The end of the first cocoa shade experiment at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. Journal Horticulture Science 49:43–51Google Scholar
  5. Amato M, Ladd JN, Ellington A, Ford G, Mahoney JE, Taylor AC and Walsgott D (1987) Decomposition of plant material in Australian soils. IV. Decompositionin situ of14C and15N-labelled legume and wheat materials in a range of southern Australian soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 25:95–105Google Scholar
  6. Anderson JM and Swift MJ (1983) Decomposition in Tropical forests. In: Sutton SL, Whitmore TC and Chadwick AC, eds, Tropical Rainforests: Ecology and Management, pp 287–309. Spec Pub 2, British Ecological Society. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson D (1986) The nutrient requirements of fruit trees: some current considerations. Advances in Plant Nutrition 2:93–128Google Scholar
  8. Ballard R (1984) Fertilization of plantations. In: Bowen GD and Nambiar EKS, eds, Nutrition of Plantation Forests, pp 327–360. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Beer J (1987) Advantages and disadvantages and desirable characteristics of shade trees for coffee, cocoa, and tea. Agroforestry Systems 3:3–13Google Scholar
  10. Beer J (1988) Litter production and nutrient cycling in coffee (Coffea arabica) or cacao (Theobroma cacao) in plantations with shade trees. Agroforestry Systems 7:103–104Google Scholar
  11. Beer J, Bonnemann A, Chavez W, Fassbender HW, Imbach AC and Martel I (1990) Modelling agroforestry systems of cacao (Theobroma cacao) with laurel (Cordia alliodora) and poro (Erythrina poeppigiana). V. Productivity indices, organic material models and sustainability over ten years. Agroforestry Systems 12:229–249Google Scholar
  12. Binkley D (1988) Forest Nutrition Management. Wiley, New York, 283 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Budelman A (1988) The decomposition of the leaf mulches ofLeucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, andFlemingia macrophylla under humid tropical conditions. Agroforestry Systems 7:33–46Google Scholar
  14. Budelman A (1989) Nutrient composition of the leaf biomass of three selected woody leguminous species. Agroforestry Systems 8:39–51Google Scholar
  15. Budowski G, Kass DCL and Russo R (1984) Leguminous trees for shade. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 19:205–222Google Scholar
  16. Byrne PN (1972) Cacao shade spacing trial in Papua and New Guinea. In: IV Int Cocoa Research Conf Trinidad, pp 275–286. St Augustine, Trinidad and TobagoGoogle Scholar
  17. Cabala-Rosand FP, De Miranda ER and De Santana CJL (1972) Interaccion sombra fertilizantes en cacoatales de Bahia. In: IV Int Cocoa Research Conf Trinidad, pp 181–189. St Augustine, Trinidad and TobagoGoogle Scholar
  18. CATIE (1992) Efecto de la fertilización en la producción de caf con y sin sombrea deErythrina poeppigiana. In: Proyecto arboles fijadores de N: Leucaena — Calliandra, pp 69–77. Informe Anual 1992. Centro Agronómico Tropical para Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  19. De Geus JG (1973) Fertilizer Guide for the Tropics and Subtropics. Centre d'Etude de l'Azote, Zurich, 774 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. De Lucena-Costa N and Paulino VT (1992) Potassium fertilization affectsCajanus cajan growth, mineral composition, and nodulation. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Res Rep 10:121–22Google Scholar
  21. De Lucena-Costa N, Paulino VT and Veasey EA (1992) Phosphorus fertilization affectsCajanus cajan growth, mineral composition, and nodulation. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Res Rep 10:127–128Google Scholar
  22. Doran JW and Smith MS (1987) Organic matter management and utilization of soil and fertilizer nutrients. In: Mortvedt JJ and Buxton DR, eds, Soil Fertility and Organic Matter as Critical Components of Productions Systems, pp 53–72. SSSA Spec Pub, 19. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  23. Duguma B, Kang BT and Okali DUU (1988) Effect of pruning intensities on three woody leguminous species grown in alley cropping with maize and cowpea on an Alfisol. Agroforestry Systems 6:19–35Google Scholar
  24. Escalante G, Herrera R and Aranguren J (1984) Fijación de nitrogeno en árboles de sombra (Erythrina poeppigiana) en cacaotales del norte de Venezuela. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 19:223–230Google Scholar
  25. Fassbender HW (1987) Modelos edafologicos de sistemas agroforestales. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica 475 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Fassbender HW, Alpizar L, Heuveldop J, Foelster H and Enriquez G (1988) Modelling agroforestry systems of cacao (Theobroma cacao) with laurel (Cordia alliodora) and poro (Erythrina poeppigiana). III. Cycles of organic matter and nutrients. Agroforestry Systems 6:49–62Google Scholar
  27. Fernandes ECM (1990) Alley cropping on acid soils. PhD dissertation. Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 157 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Fernandes ECM and Nair PKR (1986) An evaluation of the structure and function of tropical homegardens. Agroforestry Systems 21:279–310Google Scholar
  29. Fernandes ECM, O'Kting'ati A and Maghembe J (1989) The Chagga homegardens: a multistoreyed agroforestry system on Mount Kilimanjaro (northern Tanzania). In: Nair PKR, ed, Agroforestry Systems in the Tropics, pp 309–332. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  30. Fox RH, Myers RJK and Vallis I (1990) The nitrogen mineralization rate of legume residues in soil as influenced by their polyphenol, lignin, and nitrogen contents. Plant Soil 129: 251–259Google Scholar
  31. Franco CM and Inforzato R (1951) Quantidade de água transpirada pelo cafeeiro sombreado pelo Ingazeiro. Bragantia 11:12–15Google Scholar
  32. Glover N and Beer J (1986) Nutrient cycling in two traditional Central American agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems 4:77–87Google Scholar
  33. Guevara AB (1976) Management of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit for maximum yield and nitrogen contribution to intercropped corn. PhD Dissertation. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  34. Haggar J (1990) Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics of systems integrating trees and annual crops. PhD dissertation. St Johns College, University of Cambridge, 160 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Haggar JP, Warren GP, Beer JW and Kass D (1991) Phosphorus availability under alley cropping and mulched and unmulched sole cropping systems in Costa Rica. Plant Soil 137: 275–283Google Scholar
  36. Hartley CWS (1970) The Oil Palm. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Hawkins R, Sembiring H, Lubis Suwardjo D (1990) The Potential of Alley Cropping in the Uplands of East and Central Java. Agency for Agricultural Research and Development. Department of Agriculture, Indonesia, 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Hernandez I, Kass DL and Camacho Y (1993) Economic evaluation of alley farming maizebeans withErythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica, Central America. Proc IITA International Conference on Alley Farming (in press)Google Scholar
  39. Herrera R, Aranguren J, Escalante G, Acardi A, Navidad E, Toro M and Cuenca G (1987) Coffee and cacao plantations under shade trees in Venezuela. In: Beer J, Fassbender HW and Heuveldop J, eds, Advances in Agroforestry Research, pp 173–181. Serie Tecnica No 117. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  40. Hill GD (1970) Studies on the growth ofLeucaena leucocephala. Effect of clean weeding and nitrogen fertilization on early establishment. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 22:29–30Google Scholar
  41. Holland EA and Coleman DC (1987) Litter placement effects on microbial and organic matter dynamics in an agroecosystem. Ecol 68:425–433Google Scholar
  42. IITA (1989) Resource and Crop Management Program, Annual Report 1987. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 220 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacob VJ and Alles WS (1989) The Kandyan Gardens of Sri Lanka. In: Nair PKR, ed, Agro-forestry Systems in the Tropics, pp 181–195. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  44. Kang BT, Grime H and Lawson TL (1985) Alley cropping sequentially cropped maize and cowpea withLeucaena on a sandy soil in southern Nigeria. Plant Soil 85: 267–277Google Scholar
  45. Kang BT, Reynolds L and Atta-Krah AN (1990) Alley farming. Advances in Agronomy 43: 315–359Google Scholar
  46. Kang BT, Wilson GF and Lawson TL (1984) Alley Cropping, a Stable Alternative to Shifting Cultivation. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, 22 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. Kang BT, Wilson GT and Sipkens L (1981) Alley cropping of maize (Zea mays L.) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam.) in southern Nigeria. Plant Soil 63: 165–179Google Scholar
  48. Kass DCL, Barrantes A, Bermudez W, Campos W, Jimenez M and Sanchez J (1989) Resultados de seis años de investigación de cultivo en callejones (alley cropping) en ‘La Montana’. Turrialba, Costa Rica. El Chasqui 19: 5–14Google Scholar
  49. Meentemeyer V (1978) Macroclimate and lignin control of the decomposition rate. Ecology 59: 465–472Google Scholar
  50. Miller HG (1984) Dynamics of nutrient cycling in plantation ecosystems. In: Bowen GD and Nambiar EKS, eds, Nutrition of Plantation Forests, pp 53–78. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Mittal SP and Singh P (1989) Intercropping field crops between rows ofLeucaena leucocephala under rainfed conditions in northern India. Agroforestry Systems 8: 165–172Google Scholar
  52. Mulongoy K and Sanginga, N (1990) Nitrogen contribution by Leucaena in alley cropping. IITA Research 1(1): 14–17Google Scholar
  53. Munevar F and Wollum AG II (1977) Effects of the addition of phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in Andepts from Colombia. Soil Science Society America Journal 41: 540–545Google Scholar
  54. Myers RJK (1988) Nitrogen management of upland crops: from cereals to food legumes to sugarcane. In: Wilson JR ed, Advances in Nitrogen Cycling in Agroecosystems, pp 257–273, CAP International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  55. Netera SN, Palmer B and Bray RA (1992) Differential response to phosphorus and lime of two accessions ofCalliandra calothyrsus on an acid soil. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Res Rep 10: 62–65Google Scholar
  56. O'Sullivan T (1985) Farming systems and soil management: the Philippines/Australian Development Assistance Program experience. In: Craswell ET, Remenyi JV and Nallana LG, eds, Soil Erosion Management, pp 77–81. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) Proc 6. ACIAR, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  57. Palm CA and Sanchez PA (1990) Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of the leaves of three tropical legumes. Biotropica 22: 330–338Google Scholar
  58. Palm CA and Sanchez PA (1991) Nitrogen release from the leaves of some tropical legumes as affected by their lignin and polyphenolic contents. Soil Biology Biochemistry 23: 83–88Google Scholar
  59. Palm CA, McKerrow AJ, Glasener KM, and Szott LT (1991) Agroforestry in the lowland tropics: is phosphorus important? In: Tiessen H, Lopez-Hernandez D and Salcedo I, eds, Phosphorus Cycles in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, pp 134–141. Regional Workshop # 3. South and Central America. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) and United Nations Environmental Program. Saskatchewan Institute of Pedology, Saskatoon, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  60. Perera AH and Rajapakse N (1991) A baseline study of Kandyan forest gardens of Sri Lanka: structure, composition, and utilization. Forest Ecology and Management 45: 269–280Google Scholar
  61. Perez J, Szott LT, McCollum RE and Arevalo L (1993) Effect of, fertilization on early growth of pijuayo (Bactris gasipaes H. B. K.) on an Amazon basin Ultisol. In: Proc Intl Conf on Biology, Management, and Use of Pejibaye. Univ Costa Rica, San Jose (in press)Google Scholar
  62. Posey D (1985) Indigenous management of tropical forest ecosystems: the case of the Kayapo Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Agroforestry Systems 3: 139–159Google Scholar
  63. Raintree JB (1987) Agroforestry, tropical land use, and tenure. In: Raintree JB, ed, Land, Trees, and Tenure, pp 35–78. ICRAF, Nairobi, and the Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  64. Rao MR and Roger JH (1990) Discovering the hard facts. Part Two. Agronomic considerations. Agroforestry Today 2: 11–15Google Scholar
  65. Rogers S and Rosecrance R (1992) Coppice management ofParaserianthus falcataria in Western Samoa. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 10: 178–179Google Scholar
  66. Salazar A (1990) Cultivo en callejones: algunos resultados de investigación en Yurimaguas, Cuenca Amazonica de Peru. In: Smyth TJ, Raun WR and Bertsch F, eds, Manejo de suelos tropicales en Latinoamerica, pp 267–274. Soil Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  67. Salazar AA (1991) Phosphorus fertilization in an alley cropping system in upland soils of the Peruvian Amazon basin. MS Thesis. Soil Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 82 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanchez PA (1987) Soil productivity and sustainability in agroforestry systems. In: Steppler HA and Nair PKR, eds, Agroforestry: A Decade of Development, pp 206–223. ICRAF, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  69. Sanginga N, Mulongoy K and Ayanaba A (1989) Nitrogen, fixation of field-inoculatedLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit estimated by the15N and the difference methods. Plant Soil 117: 269–274Google Scholar
  70. Siaw DEKA, Kang BT and Okali DUU (1991) Alley cropping withLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit andAcioa barteri (Hook. f.) Engl. Agroforestry Systems 14: 219–231Google Scholar
  71. Sisworo WH, Mitrosuhardjo MM, Rashid H and Myers RJK (1990) The relative role of N fixation, fertilizer, crop residues and soil in supplying N in multiple cropping systems in a humid, tropical upland cropping system. Plant Soil 121: 73–82Google Scholar
  72. Soemarwoto O (1987) Homegardens: a traditional agroforestry system with a promising future. In: Steppler HA and Nair PKR, eds, Agroforestry: A Decade of Development, pp 157–170. ICRAF, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  73. Soil Science Society of America (1987) Glossary of Soil Science Terms. SSSA, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart HTL and Gwaze DO (1988) Effect of fertilizer and sowing date on establishment and early growth of direct-seededAcacia albida in Zimbabwe. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 6: 40–42Google Scholar
  75. Stewart JWB and Sharpley AN (1987) Controls on dynamics of soil and fertilizer phosphorus and sulfur. In: Mortvedt JJ and Buxton DR, eds, Soil Fertility and Organic Matter as Critical Components of Productions Systems, pp 101–122. SSSA Spec. Pub 19. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  76. Swift MJ, Russell-Smith A and Perfect TJ (1981) Decomposition and mineral nutrient dynamics of plant litter in a regenerating bush fallow in sub-humid tropical Africa. Journal Ecology 69: 981–995Google Scholar
  77. Szott LT (1987) Improving the productivity of shifting cultivation in the Amazon Basin of Peru through the use of leguminous vegetation. PhD Dissertation. Soil Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 168 ppGoogle Scholar
  78. Szott LT, Fernandes ECM and Sanchez PA (1991 a) Soil plant interactions in agroforestry systems. Forest Ecology and Management 45: 127–152Google Scholar
  79. Szott LT, Palm CA and Sanchez PA (1991 b) Agroforestry on acid soils of the humid tropics. Advances in Agronomy 45: 275–300Google Scholar
  80. Von Platen HH (1992) Economic evaluation of agroforestry systems of cacao (Theobroma cacao) with laurel (Cordia alliodora) and poro (Erythrina poeppigiana) in Costa Rica. In: Financial and Economic Analyses of Agroforestry Systems, pp 174–187. USDA Forest Service Forestry Support Program and the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, Waimanalo, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  81. Willey RW (1975) The use of shade in coffee, cocoa, and tea. Horticulture Abstracts 45(12): 791–798Google Scholar
  82. Wood GAR and Lass RA (1985) Cocoa, 4th ed. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. Yamoah CF and Burleigh JR (1990) Alley croppingSesbania sesban (L.) Merill with food crops in the highland region of Rwanda. Agroforestry Systems 10: 169–181Google Scholar
  84. Yamoah CF, Agboola AA and Wilson GF (1986) Nutrient contribution and maize performance in alley cropping systems. Agroforestry Systems 4: 247–254Google Scholar
  85. Yamoah CF, Grosz R and Nizeyimana E (1989) Early growth of alley shrubs in the Highland region of Rwanda. Agroforestry Systems 9: 171–184Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. T. Szott
    • 1
  • D. C. L. Kass
    • 2
  1. 1.IRDC, CATIELatin American Agroforestry NetworkTurrialbaCosta Rica
  2. 2.Program in Sustained Agricultural ProductionCATIETurrialbaCosta Rica

Personalised recommendations