Although agroforestry practices have been used in Central America since pre-Columbian times, scientific initiatives in agroforestry began only about 15 years ago in this region. This paper describes the evolution of agroforestry in the Central American region, and discusses the relative merits of generating new procedures or encouraging traditional practices. This is followed by an analysis of several particularly promising practices—use of N-fixing trees to shade cacao and coffee, timber trees in pastures, and living fenceposts. Finally, a list of research gaps and recommendations for future efforts is presented. It is concluded that, from the perspective of scientific knowledge, agroforestry in Central America has taken off but the link between scientific knowledge and effective field application is still lacking.