Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 135–151 | Cite as

Innovations in beneficiation technology for low grade phosphate rocks

  • Zafar Iqbal Zafar
  • M. M. Anwar
  • D. W. Pritchard


As high grade deposits of phosphate rock are being depleted day by day in the world, future sources will be derived from low grade rocks containing various impurities. Low grade phosphate rocks are not suitable for direct use in acidulation plants unless their tricalcium phosphate (TCP) content is increased to 70% or more, using conventional methods such as crushing, screening, and drying, or some other physical separation process which include washing and desliming. Other special beneficiation techniques may also be applied, such as calcination, flotation and leaching before taking it as feed for the phosphatic industry.

Most of the phosphate rocks are of sedimentary origin with low grade phosphate elements and higher levels of impurities. The first challenge to phosphate industry is the reduction of impurities in rock so that it is suitable for the production of phosphatic fertilizers to meet the increasing demand for phosphate and to cover the depletion of more amenable reserves in the world. This article addresses itself to this challenge: it considers the beneficiation methods for low grade phosphate rocks.


Calcination Phosphate Rock Phosphatic Fertilizer Physical Separation Tricalcium Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zafar Iqbal Zafar
    • 1
  • M. M. Anwar
    • 1
  • D. W. Pritchard
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Teesside MiddlesbroughClevelandUK

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