Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 111–125 | Cite as

Fertilizer inputs, nutrient balance and soil nutrient supplying power in intensive, irrigated rice system. III. Phosphorus

  • A. Dobermann
  • K. G. Cassman
  • P. C. Sta.Cruz
  • M. A. A. Adviento
  • M. F. Pampolino


Data from long-term experiments at 11 sites in Asia with a wide range of nutrient input treatments and yield levels were used to quantify crop P requirements of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the P balance in intensive, irrigated rice systems. Uptake of 1.8–4.2 kg P was required to produce one ton of grain yield. Physiological P use efficiency varied between 220 to 900 kg grain kg P-1. Without added P, there was a net loss of 7 to 8 kg P ha-1 per crop; with added P there was a net gain of 4 to 5 kg P ha-1 per crop. Phosphorus adsorption kinetics on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin capsules provided an integrative measure of soil P status, P diffusion, and acid-induced P solubilization. The resin capsule was a sensitive tool to characterize buildup or depletion of soil P as a result of different P balances. Both Olsen-P and the resin capsule were suitable methods to predict P uptake of tropical lowland rice. It is hypothesized that both methods measure a similar soil P pool which is soluble under alkaline, aerobic conditions but transformed into acid-soluble P froms as a result of submergence and reduction. Present recommendations for P fertilizer use on rice of 20–25 kg P ha-1 are adequate to maintain yields of 5–6 t ha-1, but sustaining higher yields of 7–8 t ha-1 will require farm-specific management strategies based on knowledge of the long-term P balance and soil P-supplying capacity.

Key words

long-term experiments phosphorus rice nutrient balance phosphorus uptake fertilizer P response soil testing ion-exchange resin phosphorus supplying capacity 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Dobermann
    • 1
  • K. G. Cassman
    • 1
  • P. C. Sta.Cruz
    • 1
  • M. A. A. Adviento
    • 1
  • M. F. Pampolino
    • 1
  1. 1.International Rice Research InstituteManilaPhilippines

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