Properties of high-speed steels after electroslag remelting
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Electroslag remelting of high-speed steels improves the distribution and reduces the size of carbides as compared with open induction heats. The carbides are more evenly distributed (1–2 grades).
The ESR steels have higher hot plasticity (forgeability), strength, and fracture toughness. The secondary hardness remains practically unchanged after ESR, while the heat resistance increases somewhat.
Modification of ESR heats with Ti and Ce additionally improves the structure and properties both in the cast and forged conditions. Modification is most effective with 0.05–0.30% Ti and 0.05–0.15% Ce. These elements are present in the form of carbides (titanium), sulfides, and oxysulfides (cerium), which increases the number of solidification centers. The modifying effect is larger for steels with a high concentration of tungsten, molybdenum, and vanadium.
KeywordsTitanium Sulfide Carbide Tungsten Vanadium
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