Journal of comparative physiology

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 47–64 | Cite as

Vascular responses to temperature in the foot of the giant fulmar,Macronectes giganteus

  • Kjell Johansen
  • Ronald Wesley Millard
Article

Summary

  1. 1.

    Blood circulation to the leg of an antarctic bird, the giant fulmar,Macronectes giganteus, has been studied in response to changing the temperature of the ambient environment including immersion of the feet in ice water.

     
  2. 2.

    Measurements done include blood flow to the leg by an electromagnetic flow meter, blood pressure in the carotid artery and locally in a leg artery and vein, intravenous and arterial blood temperatures in the leg in addition to foot subcutaneous temperature and core temperature (deep pectoral temperature).

     
  3. 3.

    Blood flow to the lower leg varied between 10 ml/min and 40 ml/min during resting thermoneutral conditions.

     
  4. 4.

    Raising the core temperature by heating the central body increased foot blood flow to maximum values around 40 ml/min or 160 ml/min/100 g tissue.

     
  5. 5.

    Quick warming of the cold feet by immersion in hot water caused only slight increase in leg blood flow, whereas slow rewarming in air gave increasing leg blood flow when the local temperature of the foot increased from near zero to 35.6° C.

     
  6. 6.

    Sudden immersion of the foot in ice water (T = −2.0° C) elicited an immediate flow increase and a transient increase in foot arterial blood temperature. Venous pressure in the foot increased with blood flow while foot arterial pressure was unaltered.

     
  7. 7.

    The vasodilatation on ice immersion, termed the “cold flush” was followed by a gradual increase in vasoconstriction and reduced blood flow. After about 3 minutes fluctuations “huntings” appeared in leg blood flow and local temperatures in the foot.

     
  8. 8.

    The described circulatory changes are discussed in relation to thermal homeostasis of the bird and protection of the naked feet from cold shock and impairment of function on sudden cold exposure. Special reference is given to the phenomenon of cold vasodilatation earlier described on cold exposure of extremeties in mammals.

     

Keywords

Core Temperature Cold Exposure Blood Temperature Giant Fulmar Arteriovenous Anastomosis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel Sayed, W. A., Abboud, F. M., Calvelo, M. G.: Effect of local cooling on responsiveness of muscular and cutaneous vessels. Amer. J. Physiol.219, 1772–1778 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aschoff, J., Wever, R. A.: Wärmeaustausch mit Hilfe des Kreislaufes. Dtsch. med. Wschr.84, 1509 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbour, H. G.: Die Wirkung unmittelbarer Erwärmung und Abkühlung der Wärmezentra. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak.70, 1–15 (1912).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benzinger, H. T.: Heat regulation: homeostasis of central temperature in man. Physiol. Rev.49, 671–759 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, G. M., Page, J.: The effect of chronic exposure to cold on temperature and blood flow of the hand. J. appl. Physiol.5, 221–127 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Elsner, R. W., Nelms, J., Irving, L.: Circulation of heat to the hands of Arctic Indians. J. appl. Physiol.15, 662–666 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferguson, I. D., Levinson, N.: Vascular responses to temperature in the perfused isolated ear of the rabbit. J. Physiol. (Lond.)128, 608 (1955).Google Scholar
  8. Folkow, B., Fox, R. H., Krog, J., Odelram, H., Thoren, O.: Studies on the reactions of the cutaneous vessels to cold exposure. Acta physiol. scand.58, 342–354 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Folkow, B., Neil, E.: Circulation, p. 593. New York-London-Toronto: Oxford University Press 1971.Google Scholar
  10. Grant, R. T.: Observations on direct communications between arteries and veins in the rabbit's ear. Heart15, 281–301 (1930).Google Scholar
  11. Grant, R. T.: Vasodilatation and body warming in the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.)167, 311–317 (1963).Google Scholar
  12. Grant, R. T., Bland, E. F.: Observations on arteriovenous anastomoses in human skin and in the birds foot with special reference to the reaction to cold. Heart15, 385–411 (1931).Google Scholar
  13. Greenfield, A. D. M.: The circulation through skin. In: Handbook of physiology, section 2, vol. 2, W. F. Hamilton and P. Dow, Eds. p. 1325–1351. Wash. D. C.: Amer. Physiol. Soc. 1963.Google Scholar
  14. Greenfield, A. D. M., Shepherd, J. T.: A quantitative study of the response to cold of the circulation through the fingers of normal subjects. Clin. Sci.9, 323 (1950).Google Scholar
  15. Hallwachs, O., Thauer, R., Usinger, W.: Zentrale, extracerebrale Auslösung der chemischen Temperaturregulation. Naturwissenschaften48, 458 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hammel, H. T., Crawshaw, L. I: Thermoregulatory response to heating and cooling the rostral brainstem of the Adelie penguin. Report on Alpha Helix Research Program Univ. of Calif. San Diego U. S. 1971.Google Scholar
  17. Henshaw, R. E., Underwood, L. S., Casey, T. M.: Peripheral thermoregulation: Foot temperature in two Arctic canines. Science175, 988–990 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hertzman, A. B.: Vasomotor regulation of cutaneous circulation. Physiol. Rev.39, 280–306 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hurley, H. J., Mescon, H.: The cholinergic innervation to the digital arteriovenous anastomoses of human skin. A histochemical localisation of cholinesterase. J. appl. Physiol.9, 83–83 (1956).Google Scholar
  20. Irving, L.: Arctic life of birds and mammals, 192 pp. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1972.Google Scholar
  21. Johansen, K.: Heat exchange through the muskrat tail. Evidence for vasodilator nerves to the skin. Acta physiol. scand.55, 160–169 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keatinge, W. R.: The effect of low temperatures on the responses of arteries to constrictor drugs. J. Physiol. (Lond.)142, 395–405 (1958).Google Scholar
  23. Krog, J., Folkow, B., Fox, R. H., Lange Andersen, K.: Hand circulation in the cold of Lapps and North Norwegian fishermen. J. appl. Physiol.15, 654–658 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis, T.: Observations upon the redactions of the vessels of the human skin to cold. Heart15, 177–207 (1930).Google Scholar
  25. Magoun, H. W., Harrison, F., Brobeck, J. R., Ranson, S. W.: Activation of heat loss mechanism by local heating of the brain J. Neurophysiol.1, 101–114 (1938).Google Scholar
  26. Piiper, J.: Durchblutung der Arteriovenösen Anastomosen und Wärmeaustausch an der Hundeextremität. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol.268, 242–249 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Plenk, H.Jr., Püschmann, H.: Arterio-venöse Kurzschlüsse mit Klappenmechanismen im Bereich der dorsalen Haut der Rattenhinterpfote. Z. Zellforsch.118, 243–248 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rautenberg, W.: Die Bedeutung der zentralnervösen Thermosensitivität für die Temperaturregulation der Taube. Z. vergl. Physiol.62, 235–266 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Scholander, P. F., Hock, R., Walters, V., Johnson, F., Irving, L.: Heat regulation in some arctic and tropical mammals and birds. Biol. Bull.2, 237–258 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schumacher, S. v.: Arterio-venöse Anastomosen in den Zehen der Vögel. Arch. mikr. Anat.87, 309–340 (1916).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Steen, I., Steen, J. B.: The importance of the legs in the thermorégulation of birds. Acta physiol. scand.63, 285–291 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zweifach, B. W.: Structural and functional aspects of the microcirculation of the skin, p, 144–150. In: The microcirculation. Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press 1959.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kjell Johansen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ronald Wesley Millard
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and Center for BioengineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattle
  2. 2.Department of ZoophysiologyUniversity of AarhusAarhus

Personalised recommendations