Advertisement

Simple and complex carbohydrate-rich diets and muscle glycogen content of marathon runners

  • K. M. Roberts
  • E. G. Noble
  • D. B. Hayden
  • A. W. Taylor
Article

Summary

The effects of simple-carbohydrate (CHO)- and complex-CHO-rich diets on skeletal muscle glycogen content were compared. Twenty male marathon runners were divided into four equal groups with reference to dietary consumption: depletion/simple, depletion/complex, non-depletion/simple, and nondepletion/complex. Subjects consumed either a low-CHO (15% energy [E] intake), or a mixed diet (50% CHO) for 3 days, immediately followed by a high-CHO diet (70% E intake) predominant in either simple-CHO or in complex-CHO (85% of total CHO intake) for another 3 days. Skeletal muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained one day prior to the start of the low-CHO diet or mixed diet (PRE), and then again one day after the completion of the high-CHO diet (POST). The samples were analysed for skeletal muscle glycogen, serum free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, and lactate and blood glucose. Skeletal muscle glycogen content increased significantly (p<0.05) only in the nondepletion/simple group. When groups were combined, according to the type of CHO ingested and/or utilization of a depletion diet, significant increases were observed in glycogen content. Serum FFA decreased significantly (p<0.05) for the nondepletion/complex group only, while serum insulin, blood glucose, and serum lactate were not altered. It is concluded that significant increases in skeletal muscle glycogen content can be achieved with a diet high in simple-CHO or complex-CHO, with or without initial consumption of a low-CHO diet.

Key words

Energy metabolism Carbohydrate-rich diet Glycogen Low-carbohydrate diet 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Astrand P-O (1967) Interrelationship between physical activity and metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. In: Blix G (ed) Nutrition and physical activity. Almqvist, Wikseles, Uppsala, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  2. Bergstrom J (1962) Muscle electrolytes in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest [Supp 68]Google Scholar
  3. Bergstrom J, Hultman E (1967) A study of the glycogen metabolism during exercise in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 19:218–228Google Scholar
  4. Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B (1967) Diet, muscle glycogen, and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 71:140–150Google Scholar
  5. Costill DL, Miller JM (1980) Nutrition for endurance sport: carbohydrate and fluid balance. Int J Sports Med 1:2–14Google Scholar
  6. Costill DL, Craig W, Fink WJ, Katz A (1983) Muscle and liver glycogen resynthesis following oral glucose and fructore feedings in rats. In: Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, Poortmans J (eds) Biochemistry of exercise. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, pp 281–285Google Scholar
  7. Costill DL, Sherman WN, Fink WJ, Maresh C, Witten M, Miller JM (1981) The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenuous running. Am J Clin Nutr 34:1831–1836Google Scholar
  8. Costill DL, Fink WJ, Van Handel PJ, Miller JM, Sherman WM, Watson PA, Witzmann FA (1979) Analytical methods for the measurement of human performance. Ball State University, Muncie, pp 28–29Google Scholar
  9. Duncombe WG (1964) The colormetric micro-determination of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma. Clin Chim Acta 9:122–125Google Scholar
  10. Ferguson GA (1976) Statistical analysis in psychology and education (ed 4). McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp 166–170Google Scholar
  11. Harding MG, Swarner JB, Crooks H (1965) Carbohydrates in foods. J Am Diet Assoc 46:197–204Google Scholar
  12. Health and Welfare Canada (1979) Nutrient value of some common foods. Minister of National Health and Welfare, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  13. Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B (1967) Muscle glycogen during prolonged severe exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 71:129–139Google Scholar
  14. Keppel G (1982) Design and analysis: a researcher's handbook (ed 2). Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, pp 151–153Google Scholar
  15. Laurell S, Tibbling G (1967) Colormetric micro-determination of free fatty acids in plasma. Clin Chim Acta 16:57–62Google Scholar
  16. Ledoux L, Voghel L, Brassard L, Brisson G, Peronnet F (1983) Glycogen overloading in rats: effects of various sugar intakes. In: Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, Poortmans J (eds) Biochemistry of exercise. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, pp 520–523Google Scholar
  17. Lo S, Russell JC, Taylor AW (1970) Determination of glycogen in small tissue samples. J Appl Physiol 28:234–236Google Scholar
  18. Newsholme EA, Leech T (1983) The runner. Walter L. Maegher, Roosevelt, NJ, p 64Google Scholar
  19. Noma A, Okabe H, Kita M (1973) A new colormetric microdetermination of free fatty acids in serum. Clin Chim Acta 43:317–320Google Scholar
  20. Roberts KM, Noble EG, Hayden DB, Taylor AW (1987) Lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of marathon runners after simple and complex carbohydrate-rich diets. Eur J Appl Physiol 57:75–80Google Scholar
  21. Sherman WN (1983) Carbohydrates, muscle glycogen, and muscle glycogen supercompensation, In: Williams MH (ed) Ergogenic aids in sports. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, p 1–25Google Scholar
  22. Sherman WM, Costill DL (1984) The marathon: dietary manipulation to optimize performance. Am J Sports Med 12:44–51Google Scholar
  23. Sherman WN, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Miller JM (1981) Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. Int J Sports Med 2:114–118Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. M. Roberts
    • 1
  • E. G. Noble
    • 1
  • D. B. Hayden
    • 1
  • A. W. Taylor
    • 1
  1. 1.The Faculties of Physical Education, Medicine, and ScienceThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations