Circadian complexes: Circadian rhythms under common gene control
- 29 Downloads
Circadian rhythms for food and water consumption were measured in five inbred strains of mice under a photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h dark (16:8 LD), and under constant light (LL).
Significant strain differences were observed which indicate that a common gene difference, or set of differences inMus musculus influences both the phase angle (ψ) associating the rhythms with the light-dark cycle, and the periods (τLL) of circadian rhythms for food and water consumption. The biological clock mechanism influenced by this genetic variance is common to both food and water circadian rhythms, and differs among the five inbred strains. A positive genetic correlation was observed between the phase angle (ψ) and the period (τLL) of each rhythm. This observation can be understood in terms of a functional relationship between phase and period proposed by Pittendrigh and Daan (1976b) for the entrainment of a circadian oscillator by a light-dark cycle in nocturnal rodents.
These results suggest that circadian rhythms for food and water consumption in mice are regulated by a common physiological mechanism, and would respond to natural selection as a single “circadian complex” under common gene control.
KeywordsCircadian Rhythm Phase Angle Water Consumption Functional Relationship Genetic Correlation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Blizard, D.W., Bailey, D.W.: Genetic correlation between openfield activity and defecation: Analysis with the CxB recombinant-inbred strains. Behav. Genet.9, 349–357 (1979)Google Scholar
- Boulos, Z., Terman, M.: Splitting of circadian rhythms in the rat. J. Comp. Physiol.134, 75–83 (1979)Google Scholar
- Daan, S., Pittendrigh, C.S.: A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents. III. Heavy water and constant light: Homeostasis of frequency. J. Comp. Physiol.106, 267–290 (1976a)Google Scholar
- Falconer, D.S.: Introduction to quantitative genetics. New York: Ronald 1960Google Scholar
- Feldman, J.F., Hoyle, M.N.: Isolation of circadian clock mutants ofNeurospora crassa. Genetics75, 605–613 (1973)Google Scholar
- Hegmann, J.P.: A gene-imposed nervous system difference influencing behavioral covariance. Behav. Genet.9, 165–175 (1979)Google Scholar
- Hegmann, J.P., Possidente, B.: Estimating genetic correlations from inbred strains. Behav. Genet. (in press) (1980)Google Scholar
- Hoffmann, K.: The adaptive significance of biological rhythms correspondong to geophysical cycles. In: The molecular basis of circadian rhythms: Report of the Dahlem workshop on the molecular basis of circadian, rhythms. Hastings, J.W., Schweiger, H. (eds.), pp. 63–75. Berlin: Abakon Verlagsgesellschaft 1976Google Scholar
- Inouye, S.T., Kawamura, H.: Persistance of circadian rhythmicity in a mammalian hypothalamic “island” containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.76, 5962–5966 (1979)Google Scholar
- Konopka, R.J., Benzer, S.: Clock mutants ofDrosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.68, 2112–2116 (1971)Google Scholar
- Lande, R.: Quantitative genetic analysis of multivariate evolution applied to brain-body size allometry. Evolution33, 402–416 (1979)Google Scholar
- Luce, G.G.: Biological rhythms in human and animal physiology, New York: Dover Publications Inc 1971Google Scholar
- Milne, W.E.: Numerical calculus, pp. 275–280. Princeton University Press (1949)Google Scholar
- Moore-Ede, M.C., Schmelzer, W.S., Kass, D.A., Herd, J.A.: Internal organization of the circadian timing system in multicellular animals. Fed. Proc. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol.35, 2333–2338 (1976)Google Scholar
- Morse, H.C.: Origins of inbred mice. New York: Academic Press 1978Google Scholar
- Pittendrigh, C.S.: Circadian systems, I. The driving oscillation and its assay inDrosophila pseudoobscura. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.58, 1762–1767 (1967)Google Scholar
- Pittendrigh, C.S., Daan, S.: A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents. I. The stability and lability of spontaneous frequency. J. Comp. Physiol.106, 223–252 (1976a)Google Scholar
- Pittendrigh, C.S., Daan, S.: A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents. IV. Pacemaker as clock. J. Comp. Physiol.106, 291–331 (1976b)Google Scholar
- Pittendrigh, C.S., Minis, D.H.: The photoperiodic time measurement inPectinophora gossypiella and its relation to the circadian system in that species. In: Biochronometry. Menaker, M. (ed.), pp. 212–246. Washington D.C.: PNAS Symposium 1971Google Scholar
- Pittendrigh, C.S., Minis, D.H.: Circadian systems: Longevity as a function of circadian resonance inDrosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.69, 1537–1539 (1972)Google Scholar
- Possidente, B., Birnbaum, S.: Circadian rhythms for food and water consumption in the mouseMus musculus. Physiol. Behav.22, 667–670 (1979)Google Scholar
- Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J.: Biometry. San Francisco: Freeman 1969Google Scholar
- Yunis, E.J., Halberg, F., McMullen, A., Roitman, B., Fernandes, G.: Model studies of aging, genetics and stable versus changing living routines — simulated by lighting regimen manipulation on the mouse. Int. J. Chronobiol.1, 368–369 (1973)Google Scholar