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Chinese whip scorpion using 2-ketones in defense secretion (Arachnida: Uropygi)


North American as well as East Asian whip scorpions of the generaMastigoproctus andTypopeltis are known to use acetic acid and caprylic acid as a defense mechanism. In the secretion from defense glands of a ChineseTypopeltis species, 2-ketones (2-heptanone, 2-octanone, and 2-nonanone) were identified as constituents for the first time. While acetic acid is also present as a secretory product, no caprylic acid has been found.

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CI :

chemical ionization

EI :

electron impact

eV :

electron Volt


gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

m/z :

mass/charge ratio (Dalton)


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Haupt, J., Höhne, G., Schwarz, H. et al. Chinese whip scorpion using 2-ketones in defense secretion (Arachnida: Uropygi). J Comp Physiol B 157, 883–885 (1988).

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  • Acetic
  • Acetic Acid
  • Human Physiology
  • Defense Mechanism
  • Secretory Product