Advertisement

The effects of dietary manipulation on blood acid-base status and the performance of high intensity exercise

  • P. L. Greenhaff
  • M. Gleeson
  • R. J. Maughan
Article

Summary

The effect of a pattern of exercise and dietary modification, which is normally used to alter muscle glycogen content, upon the acid-base status of the blood and the ability to perform high intensity exercise was studied. Eleven healthy male subjects cycled to exhaustion on an electrically braked cycle ergometer at a workload equivalent to 100% of their maximal oxygen uptake (\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{{\text{ 2 max}}} } \)) on three separate occasions. The first exercise test took place after a normal diet (46.2±6.7% carbohydrate (CHO)), and was followed by prolonged exercise to exhaustion to deplete muscle glycogen stores. The second test was performed after three days of a low carbohydrate diet (10.1±6.8% CHO) and subsequently after three days of a high CHO diet (65.5±9.8% CHO) the final test took place. Acid-base status and selected metabolites were measured on arterialised venous blood at rest prior to exercise and during the post-exercise period. Exercise time to exhaustion was longer after the normal (p<0.05) and high (p<0.05) CHO dietary phases compared with the low CHO phase. Resting pre-exercise pH was higher after the high CHO diet (p<0.05) compared with the low CHO diet. Pre-exercise bicarbonate, PCO2 and base excess measurements were higher after the high CHO treatment compared with both the normal (p<0.01,p<0.05,p<0.01 respectively) and low CHO phases (p<0.001,p<0.01,p<0.001 respectively). Daily dietary acid intake, estimated from food composition tables, was higher than normal during the low CHO diet and lower than normal during the high CHO diet. The present investigation suggests that a predetermined regimen of dietary and exercise variation can significantly affect blood acid-base status and may thereby influence high intensity exercise performance.

Key words

High intensity exercise Acid-base status Dietary variation Lactate Protein intake 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asmussen E, Klausen K, Egelund Nielsen L, Techow OSA, Tonder PJ (1974) Lactate production and anaerobic work capacity after prolonged exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 90:731–742Google Scholar
  2. Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B (1967) Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 71:140–150Google Scholar
  3. Boobis LH, Maughan RJ (1983) A simple one step fluorimetric method for determination of glycerol in 20 μl of plasma. Clin Chim Acta 132:173–179Google Scholar
  4. Camien MN, Simmons DH, Gonick HC (1969) A critical reappraisal of ‘acid-base’ balance. Am J Clin Nutr 22:786–793Google Scholar
  5. Forster HV, Dempsey JA, Thomson J, Vidruk E, doPico GA (1972) Estimation of arterial PO2, PCO2, pH and lactate from arterialised venous blood. J Appl Physiol 32:134–137Google Scholar
  6. Fuchs R, Reddy Y, Griggs FN (1970) The interaction of cations with the calcium binding side of troponin. Biochim Biophys Acta 221:407–409Google Scholar
  7. Guthrie HA (1983) Introductory nutrition. (5th edition) CV Mosby Company, London, p 123Google Scholar
  8. Hermansen L (1981) Muscle fatigue during maximal exercise of short duration. Med Sport 13:45–52Google Scholar
  9. Hewitt JE, Callaway EC (1936) Alkali reserve of the blood in relation to swimming performance. Res Q Am Phys Ed Assoc 7:83–93Google Scholar
  10. Kirche HJ, Hombach V, Langohr HD, Wacker U, Busse J (1975) Lactic acid permeation rate in working gastrocnemii of dogs during metabolic alkalosis and acidosis. Pflügers Arch 356:209–222Google Scholar
  11. Hultman E, Sahlin K (1980) Acid-base balance during exercise. In: Hutton RS, Miller D (eds) Exercise and sports science reviews. Franklin Institute Press Philadelphia 8:41–128Google Scholar
  12. Hultman E, Bergstrom J, McLennan Anderson N (1967) Breakdown and resynthesis of phosphorylcreatine and adenosine triphosphate in connection with muscular work in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 19:56–66Google Scholar
  13. Hultman E, Del-Canale S, Sjöholm H (1985) Effect of induced metabolic acidosis on intracellular pH, buffer capacity and contraction force in human skeletal muscle. Clin Sci 65:505–510Google Scholar
  14. Jacobs I (1981) Lactate, muscle glycogen and exercise performance in man. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl 495] 1–35Google Scholar
  15. Jones NL, Sutton JR, Taylor R, Toews CJ (1977) Effect of pH on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol 43:959–964Google Scholar
  16. McCance RA, Widdowson ED (1960) The composition of foods. MRC Special Report Series No. 297, London H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  17. Mainwood GW, Worsley-Brown P (1975) The effects of extracellular pH and buffer concentration on the efflux of lactate from frog sartorius muscle. J Physiol 250:1–22Google Scholar
  18. Maughan RJ (1982) A simple, rapid method for determination of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in a single 20 μl blood sample. Clin Chim Acta 122:231–240Google Scholar
  19. Maughan RJ, Poole DC (1981) The effects of a glycogen-loading regimen on the capacity to perform anaerobic exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 46:211–219Google Scholar
  20. Noma A, Okabe H, Kita M (1973) A new colorimetric microdetermination of free fatty acids in serum. Clin Chim Acta 43:317–320Google Scholar
  21. Osnes JB, Hermansen L (1972) Acid-base balance after maximal exercise of short duration. J Appl Physiol 32:59–63Google Scholar
  22. Saltin B, Karlsson J (1971) Muscle glycogen utilisation during work of different intensities. In: Pernow B, Saltin B (eds) Muscle metabolism during exercise. Plenum Press, New York, pp 289–300Google Scholar
  23. Sahlin K, Harris RC, Nylind B, Hultman E (1976) Lactate content and pH in muscle samples obtained after dynamic exercise. Pflügers Arch 367:143–149Google Scholar
  24. Siggaard-Andersen O (1963) Blood acid-base alignment nomogram. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 15:211–217Google Scholar
  25. Shohl AT (1923) Mineral metabolism in relation to acid-base equilibrium. Physiol Rev 3:502–543Google Scholar
  26. Sutton JR, Jones NL, Toews CJ (1981) Effects of pH on muscle glycolysis during exercise. Clin Sci 61:331–338Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Greenhaff
    • 1
  • M. Gleeson
    • 1
  • R. J. Maughan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational MedicineUniversity Medical SchoolAberdeenScotland

Personalised recommendations