Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 90–98 | Cite as

Muscle fiber type differentiation and satellite cell populations in normally grown and neonatally denervated muscles in the rat

  • S. Okada
  • I. Nonaka
  • S. M. Chou
Original Works


To examine the neural influence upon fiber type differentiation in developing muscles, newborn rats were subjected to sciatic nerve dissection, and the denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) (white) and soleus (red) muscles were examined in chronologic sequence by means of histochemistry and electron microscopy. The skeletal muscles in the newborn rats were undifferentiated (type 2C fibers seen on ATPase staining) and contained numerous myotubes. In the controls, the type 2C fibers started to differentiate at around 5 days and had almost completed type differentiation by 30 days in EDL and by 90 days in soleus muscles. On the other hand, none of the fibers in the neonatally denervated muscles developed into well differentiated type 1 and 2A fibers, but both the EDL and soleus showed longlasting type 2C and 2B populations. The satellite cells in the denervated EDL and soleus muscles decreased in number at the same rate as in the control muscles with maturation. The absence of a neural supply in the developing muscles induced a delay in muscle fiber type differentiation but did not influence the satellite cell populations in either EDL or soleus muscles.

Key words

Muscle fiber types ATPase Development Neonatal denervation Muscle differentiation Satellite cell populations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allbrook DB, Han MF, Helmuth AE (1971) Population of muscle satellite cells in relation to age and mitotic activity. Pathology 3:233–243Google Scholar
  2. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK (1970) Muscle fiber types: How many and what kind? Arch Neurol 23:369–379Google Scholar
  3. Brooke MH, Williamson E, Kaiser KK (1971) The behavior of four fiber types in developing and reinnervated muscle. Arch Neurol 25:360–366Google Scholar
  4. Colling-Saltin A-S (1978) Enzyme histochemistry on skeletal muscle of the human foetus. J Neurol Sci 39:169–185Google Scholar
  5. Dhoot GK, Perry SV (1983) Effect of denervation at birth on the development of skeletal muscle cell types in the rat. Exp Neurol 82:131–142Google Scholar
  6. Dubowitz V (1966) Histochemistry. Enzyme histochemistry of developing human muscle. Nature 211:884–885Google Scholar
  7. Dubowitz V, Brooke MH (1973) Muscle biopsy. A modern approach. Saunders, London Philadelphia TorontoGoogle Scholar
  8. Engel WK, Karpati G (1968) Impaired skeletal muscle maturation following neonatel neurectomy. Dev Biol 17:713–723Google Scholar
  9. Fidzianska A (1974) Ultrastructural changes in muscle in spinal muscular atrophy — Werdnig-Hoffmann's disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 27:247–256Google Scholar
  10. Ho KW, Heusner WW, Huss JV, Huss WDV (1983) Postnatal muscle fiber histochemistry in the rat. J Embryol Exp Morphol 76:37–49Google Scholar
  11. Ishikawa H (1966) Electron-microscopic observations of satellite cells with special reference to the development of mammalian skeletal muscles. Z Anat Entwickl-Gesch 125:43–63Google Scholar
  12. Ishimoto S, Goto I, Ohta M, Kuroiwa Y (1983) A quantitative study of the muscle satellite cells in various neuromuscular disorders. J Neurol Sci 62:303–314Google Scholar
  13. Ishiura S, Nonaka I, Sugita H, Mikawa T (1981) Effect of denervation of neonatal rat sciatic nerve on the differentiation of myosin in a single muscle fiber. Exp Neurol 73:487–495Google Scholar
  14. Karpati G, Engel WK (1967a) Neuronal trophic function. Arch Neurol 17:542–545Google Scholar
  15. Karpati G, Engel WK (1967b) Transformation of histochemical profile of skeletal muscle by “foreign” innervation. Nature 215:1509–1510Google Scholar
  16. Kelly AM (1978) Satellite cells and myofiber growth in the rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Dev Biol 65:1–10Google Scholar
  17. Mauro A (1961) Satellite cells of skeletal muscle fibers. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 9:493–495Google Scholar
  18. Moss FP, Leblond CP (1971) Satellite cells as the source of nuclei in muscles of growing rats. Anat Rec 170:421–436Google Scholar
  19. Nonaka I, Chou SM (1978) Histochemical study on muscle in Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. Clin Neurol (Tokyo) 18:491–498Google Scholar
  20. Nonaka I, Tojo M, Sugita H (1983) Fetal muscle characteristics in nemaline myopathy. Neuropediatrics 14:47–52Google Scholar
  21. Nonaka I, Okada S, Saito Y (1984) Defects in muscle fiber maturation in congenital myopathies. In: Serratrice G, Cros D, Desnuelle C, Gastaut J-L, Pellissier J-F, Pouget J, Schiano A (eds) Neuromuscular diseases. Raven Press, New York, pp 207–212Google Scholar
  22. Okada S, Nonaka I, Ishiura S, Sugita H (1981) A histochemical study of muscle fiber differentiation in the rat muscle. Neurol Med (Tokyo) 15:363–370Google Scholar
  23. Revel JP, Karnovsky MJ (1972) Hexagonal array of subunits in intercellular junctions of the mouse heart and liver. J Cell Biol 53:348–364Google Scholar
  24. Romanul FCA, Van Der Neulen JP (1967) Slow and fast muscles after cross-innervation. Arch Neurol 17:387–402Google Scholar
  25. Rubinstein NA, Kelly AM (1978) Myogenic and neurogenic contributions to the development of fast and slow twitch muscles in rat. Dev Neurol 62:473–485Google Scholar
  26. Rubinstein NA, Kelly AM (1981) Development of muscle fiber specialization in the rat hindlimb. J Cell Biol 90:128–144Google Scholar
  27. Schultz E (1974) A quantitative study of the satellite cell population in postnatal mouse lumbrical muscle. Anat Rec 180:589–596Google Scholar
  28. Schultz E (1978) Changes in the satellite cells of growing muscle following denervation. Anat Rec 190:299–312Google Scholar
  29. Snow MH (1977) The effects of aging on satellite cells in skeletal muscles of mice and rats. Cell Tissue Res 185:399–408Google Scholar
  30. Van Haelst U (1970) An electron-microscopic study of muscle in Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 351:291–305Google Scholar
  31. Wakayama Y, Schotland DL (1979) Muscle satellite cell populations in Duchenne dystrophy. In: Mauro A (ed) Muscle regeneration. Raven Press, New York, pp 121–129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Okada
    • 1
  • I. Nonaka
    • 1
  • S. M. Chou
    • 2
  1. 1.National Center for Nervous, Mental, and Muscular DisordersKodaira, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Dept. of Pathology (Neuropathology)Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations