Advertisement

Journal of comparative physiology

, Volume 149, Issue 4, pp 469–475 | Cite as

Anaerobic energy metabolism of the European eel,Anguilla anguilla L.

  • Aren van Waarde
  • Guido van den Thillart
  • Fanja Kesbeke
Article

Summary

Eels, acclimated the 15°C and aerated water (PO2 130 mm Hg) were exposed to hypoxia (PO2 lowered from 130 to 8 mm Hg in 4 h) and to complete anoxia until loss of equilibrium. Experiments were carried out at night. The mean survival time (LT50) during anoxic conditions proved to be 5.7 h. ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, CrP, glycogen, lactate, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, malate, succinate, alanine, aspartate, glutamate and ammonia levels were determined in skeletal muscle and liver of control, hypoxic and anoxic fish. Some of the mentioned parameters were also measured in heart muscle and blood. Hypoxia causes declines of aspartate (muscle), CrP (muscle) and glycogen (liver, heart), and increases of alanine (blood, liver) and lactate (blood, liver, heart). During anoxia, muscle CrP stores are almost completely exhausted and adenylates are partially broken down to IMP. A decrease of glycogen and an accumulation of lactate were observed in all tissues examined. The energy charge of muscle and heart did not drop below 0.79, but in liver tissue it decreased from 0.65 to 0.17. Liver cytoplasm became significantly reduced during anoxia, but such a change of redox state did not occur in muscle. Eels seem to lack the capacity for anaerobic fermentation of glycogen to ethanol, as observed in goldfish. Lactate glycolysis and creatine phosphate breakdown appear to be the main energy producing pathways during anaerobiosis.

Keywords

Fermentation Lactate Glutamate Pyruvate Succinate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ALA

alanine

ASP

aspartate

CrP

creatine phosphate

EC

(adenylate) energy charge

GLU

glutamate

GLC

glucose

GLY

glycogen

IMP

inosine-5′-monophosphate

αKG

αketoglutarate

LAC

lactate

MAL

malate

PYR

pyruvate

SUC

succinate

TAN

total pool of adenine nucleotides

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bergmeyer HU (Hsg) (1970) Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse. Verlag Chemie, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  2. Blazka P (1958) The anaerobic metabolism of fish. Physiol Zool 31:117–128Google Scholar
  3. Brosnan JT, Krebs HA, Williamson DH (1970) Effects of ischaemia on metabolite concentrations in rat liver. Biochem J 117:91–96Google Scholar
  4. Burton D, Spehar A (1971) A re-evaluation of the anaerobic end-products of freshwater fish exposed to environmental hypoxia. Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 40:945–954Google Scholar
  5. Dave G, Johansson-Sjöbeck ML, Larsson Å, Lewander K, Lidman U (1975) Metabolic effects of starvation in the European eel,Anguilla anguilla L. Carbohydrate, lipid, protein and inorganic ion metabolism. Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 52:423–430Google Scholar
  6. Driedzic W, Hochachka PW (1975) The unanswered question of high anaerobic capabilities of carpabilities of carp white muscle. Can J Zool 53:706–712Google Scholar
  7. Fonseca-Wollheim F da (1973) Bedeutung von Wasserstoffionenkonzentration und ADP-Zusatz bei der Ammoniakbestimmung mit Glutamatdehydrogenase. Z Klin Chem Klin Biochem 11:421–425Google Scholar
  8. Fraser DI, Lo E, Dyer WJ (1966) Nucleotide interference with glycogen estimation in white and red muscle of cod. J Fish Res Board Can 23:912–924Google Scholar
  9. Gercken G (1960) Die quantitative enzymatische Dehydrierung vonl(+)-Laktat für die Mikroanalyse. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem 320:180–186Google Scholar
  10. Heath AG, Pritchard AW (1965) Effects of severe hypoxia on carbohydrate energy stores and metabolism in two species of freshwater fish. Physiol Zool 38:325–334Google Scholar
  11. Johnston IA (1975a) Anaerobic metabolism in the carp (Carassius carassius L.). Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 51:235–241Google Scholar
  12. Johnston IA (1975b) Studies on the swimming musculature of the rainbow trout II. Muscle metabolism during severe hypoxia. J Fisch Biol 7:459–467Google Scholar
  13. Jørgensen JB, Mustafa T (1980a) The effect of hypoxia on carbohydrate metabolism in flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). I. Utilization of glycogen and accumulation of glycolytic end products in various tissues. Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 67:243–248Google Scholar
  14. Jørgensen JB, Mustafa T (1980b) The effect of hypoxia on carbohydrate metabolism in flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) II. High energy phosphate compounds and the role of glycolytic and gluconeogenetic enzymes. Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 67:249–256Google Scholar
  15. Kassemsarn BO, Sanz-Perez B, Murray J, Jones NR (1963) Nucleotide degradation in the muscle of iced haddock, lemon sole and plaice. J Food Sci 22:28–37Google Scholar
  16. Larsson Å, Lewander K (1973) Metabolic effects of starvation in the eel,Anguilla anguilla L.. Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 44:367–374Google Scholar
  17. Michal G, Beutler HO, Lang G, Guentner U (1976) Enzymatic determination of succinic acid in foodstuffs. Z Anal Chem 279:137–138Google Scholar
  18. Mourik J, Raeven P, Steur K, Addink ADF (1982) Anaerobic metabolism of red skeletal muscle of goldfish,Carassius auratus (L.). Mitochondrial produced acetaldehyde as anaerobic electron acceptor. FEBS Lett 137:111–114Google Scholar
  19. Shoubridge EA (1982) Metabolic integration and control in the anoxic goldfish. 205th Conf Soc Exp Biol, Leiden, Abstr, p 10Google Scholar
  20. Shoubridge EA, Hochachka PW (1980) Ethanol, novel end-product of vertebrate anaerobic metabolism. Science 209:308–309Google Scholar
  21. Spinelli J (1967) Degradation of nucleotides in ice-stored halibut. J Food Sci 28:38–41Google Scholar
  22. Sylvia AL, Lai FM, Shen AL, Miller AT (1975) Mitochondrial-cytoplasmatic redox exchange in acute, brief hypoxia. Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 50:739–741Google Scholar
  23. Thillart G van den, Kesbeke F (1978) Anaerobic production of carbon dioxide and ammonia by goldfish,Carassius auratus (L.). Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 59:393–400Google Scholar
  24. Thillart G van den, Kesbeke F, Waarde A van (1976) Influence of anoxia on the energy metabolism of goldfish,Carassius auratus (L.). Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 55:329–336Google Scholar
  25. Thillart G van den, Kesbeke F, Waarde A van (1980) Anaerobic energy metabolism of goldfish,Carassius auratus (L.). Influence of hypoxia and anoxia on phosphorylated compounds and glycogen. J Comp Physiol 136:45–52Google Scholar
  26. Thillart G van den, Waarde A van, Dobbe F, Kesbeke F (1982) Anaerobic energy metabolism in goldfish,Carassius auratus (L.). Effects of anoxia on the measured and calculated NAD+/NADH ratios in muscle and liver. J Comp Physiol 146:41–49Google Scholar
  27. Waarde A van, Thillart G van den, Dobbe F (1982) Anaerobic metabolism of goldfish,Carassius auratus (L.). Influence of anoxia on mass-action ratios of transaminase reactions and levels of ammonia and succinate. J Comp Physiol 147:53–59Google Scholar
  28. Walker RM, Johansen PH (1977) Anaerobic metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Can J Zool 55:1304–1311Google Scholar
  29. Williamson DH, Lund P, Krebs HA (1967) The redox state of free nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of rat liver. Biochem J 103:514–527Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aren van Waarde
    • 1
  • Guido van den Thillart
    • 1
  • Fanja Kesbeke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal Physiology, Gorlaeus LaboratoriesUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations