Brainstem regions involved in the generation of respiratory movements in quail
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The entire medulla of anaesthetised Japanese quail was surveyed by electrical stimulation, for areas involved in the generation of the respiratory pattern.
Sites were found at which 140% and 35% increases in respiratory rate, and inspiratory and expiratory cramps were elicited.
The responses were characterized both by the effects of stimulation and the patterns of post-stimulatory recovery.
Histological localization of sites and statistical analyses showed the four types to be anatomically separated in the medulla.
The contrast between these results and those from mammals indicated that birds could provide a useful model for further studies in respiratory physiology.
KeywordsRespiratory Rate Human Physiology Electrical Stimulation Respiratory Movement Japanese Quail
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