Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 379–384 | Cite as

Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the antitumour agentN-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide after i.v. administration in the mouse

  • James W. Paxton
  • Deborah Young
  • Sean M. H. Evans
  • Philip Kestell
  • Iain G. C. Robertson
  • Eain M. Cornford
Original Articles Acridine-Carboxamide, Pharmacokinetics, Toxicity


The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and toxicity of the antitumour agentN-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide(AC) were studied after i.v. administration to mice. Over the dose range of 9–121 μmol/kg (3–40 mg/kg), AC displayed linear kinetics with the following model-independent parameters: clearance (C), 21.0±1.9 l h−1 kg−1; steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), 11.8±1.4 l/kg; and mean residence time (MRT), 0.56±0.02 h. The plasma concentration-time profiles for AC fitted a two-compartment model with the following parameters:Cc, 19.4±2.3 l h−1 kg−1; Vc, 7.08±1.06 l/kg;t1/2α 13.1±3.5 min; andt1/2Z, 1.60±0.65 h. AC displayed moderately high binding in healthy mouse plasma, giving a free fraction of 15.9%–25.3% over the drug concentration range of 1–561 μM. After the i.v. administration of 30 μmol/kg [3H]-AC, high radioactivity concentrations were observed in all tissues (especially the brain and kidney), showing a hight1/2c value (37–59 h). At 2 min (first blood collection), the AC concentration as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) comprised 61% of the plasma radioactivity concentration (expressed as AC equivalents/l). By 48 h, 73% of the dose had been eliminated, with 26% and 47% of the delivered drug being excreted by the urinary and faecal routes, respectively; <1% of the total dose was excreted as unchanged AC in the urine. At least five distinct radiochemical peaks were distinguishable by HPLC analysis of plasma extracts, with some similar peaks appearing in urine. The 121-μmol/kg dose was well tolerated by mice, with sedation being the only obvious side effect and no significant alterations in blood biochemistry or haematological parameters being recorded. After receiving a dose of 152 μmol/kg, all mice experienced clonic seizures for 2 min (with one death occuring) followed by a period of sedation that lasted for up to 2h. No leucopenia occurred, but some mild anaemia was noted. There was no significant change in blood biochemistry. A further 20% increase in the i.v. dose (to 182 μmol/kg) resulted in mortality, with death occurring within 2 min of AC administration.


Dimethylamino Mean Residence Time Radioactivity Concentration Clonic Seizure Blood Biochemistry 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Paxton
    • 1
  • Deborah Young
    • 1
  • Sean M. H. Evans
    • 1
  • Philip Kestell
    • 2
  • Iain G. C. Robertson
    • 1
  • Eain M. Cornford
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of Auckland School of MedicineAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Cancer Research LaboratoryUniversity of Auckland School of MedicineAnckland
  3. 3.Veterans AdministrationWest Los Angeles Medical CenterUSA

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