Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 125–132 | Cite as

Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated vinblastine transport across HCT-8 intestinal carcinoma monolayers by verapamil, cyclosporine A and SDZ PSC 833 in dependence on extracellular pH

  • Johannes Zacherl
  • Gerhard Hamilton
  • Therese Thalhammer
  • Martin Riegler
  • Enrico P. Cosentini
  • Adolf Ellinger
  • Georg Bischof
  • Michael Schweitzer
  • Bela Teleky
  • Thomas Koperna
  • Etienne Wenzl
Original Articles Verapamil, Cyclosporine A, SDZ PSC 833, Vinblastine, Adenocarcinoma, HCT-8 Monolayer, Multidrug Resistance, P-glycoprotein

Abstract

The ability of the multidrug resistance modifiers R- and R,S-verapamil (VPL), cyclosporine A (CsA) and its non-immunosuppressive derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC 833) to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transepithelial flux of tritiated vinblastine was investigated using tight and highly resistant (R>1,400 Ω cm2) monolayer cultures of intestinal adenocarcinoma-derived HCT-8 cells grown on permeable tissue-culture inserts. Apical addition of these chemosensitisers inhibited drug flux (137 pmol h−1 cm−2; range, 133–142 pmol h−1 cm−2) in the basal to apical secretory direction at clinically relevant concentrations, with PSC 833 showing the highest activity, exhibiting inhibition at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml (9 nM). Acidification of the modulator-containing apical compartment to an extracellular pH (pHo) of 6.8 had no influence on MDR reversal by CsA at 1 μg/ml (0.9 μM; flux inhibition, 52%) or by PSC 833 at 100 ng/ml (0.09 μM; flux inhibition, 60%), in contrast to R,S- and R-VPL, which showed decreased inhibition and caused less accumulation of vinblastine in HCT-8 cells under this condition (flux inhibition of 35% and 23%, respectively, at pHo 6.8 vs 50% and 43%, respectively, at pHo 7.5). P-gp-mediated rhdamine 123 efflux from dye-loaded single-cell suspensions of HCT-8 cells as measured by flow cytometry was not impeded at pHo 6.8 in comparison with pHo 7.5 in standard medium, but at low pHo the inhibitory activity of r-VPL (29% vs 60% rhodamine 123 efflux inhibition) was diminished significantly, again without a reduction in the effect of PSC 833 (rhodamine 123 flux inhibition, 75%). In conclusion, drug extrusion across polarised monolayers, which offer a relevant model for normal epithelia and tumour border areas, is inhibited by the apical presence of R,S- and R-VPL, CsA and PSC 833 at similar concentrations described for single-cell suspensions, resulting in increased (2.2- to 3.7-fold) intracellular drug accumulation. Functional apical P-gp expression, the absence of paracellular leakage and modulator-sensitive rhodamine 123 efflux in single HCT-8 cells indicate a P-gp-mediated transcellular efflux in HCT-8 monolayers. In addition to its high MDR-reversing capacity, the inhibitory activity of PSC 833 is not affected by acidic extracellular conditions, which reduce the VPL-induced drug retention significantly. As far as MDR contributes to the overall cellular drug resistance of solid tumours with hypoxic and acidic microenvironments, PSC 833 holds the greatest promise for clinical reversal of unresponsiveness to the respective group of chemotherapeutics.

Keywords

Vinblastine Acidic Microenvironment Drug Flux Efflux Inhibition Intracellular Drug Accumulation 

Abbreviations

CsA

cyclosporine A

HEPES

[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N′-(2-ethanesulfonic acid)]

MDR

multidrug resistance; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline

P-gp

P-glycoprotein

pHo

extracellular pH

PSC 833

SDZ PSC 833

R

resistance

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

VPL

verapamil

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Zacherl
    • 1
  • Gerhard Hamilton
    • 1
  • Therese Thalhammer
    • 2
  • Martin Riegler
    • 1
  • Enrico P. Cosentini
    • 1
  • Adolf Ellinger
    • 3
  • Georg Bischof
    • 1
  • Michael Schweitzer
    • 1
  • Bela Teleky
    • 1
  • Thomas Koperna
    • 1
  • Etienne Wenzl
    • 1
  1. 1.Gastroenterological Laboratory, I. Department of SurgeryUniversity of Vienna, AKHViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of General and Experimental PathologyUniversity of Vienna, AKHViennaAustria
  3. 3.Institute of Micromorphology and Electron MicroscopyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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