Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 55–64 | Cite as

Changes of ventricular ependyma and choroid plexus in experimental hydrocephalus, as observed by scanning electron microscopy

  • K. G. Go
  • I. Stokroos
  • E. H. Blaauw
  • F. Zuiderveen
  • I. Molenaar
Original Investigations

Summary

Hydrocephalus was induced in rats by the injection of silicone oil or kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. One to 5 weeks later the walls of the lateral ventricles were studied with the scanning electron microscope after killing the animals by perfusion fixation. In contrast to controls, the hydrocephalic animals killed 1 or 2 weeks after injection showed degeneration of ependymal cilia and infestation of the ependymal and choroid plexus surface with reactive cells, which presumably may be identified as Kolmer phagocytic cells by their ultrastructural features as studied by the transmission electron microscope. A coating of debris on the surface of the choroid plexus in the hydrocephalic animals possibly bears upon the ciliary degeneration with consequent deficiency of the clearing effect of ciliary movement. In the longer surviving hydrocephalic animals regeneration of cilia seemed to have occurred.

Key words

Experimental hydrocephalus Silicone Ventricular ependyma Choroid plexus Scanning electron microscopy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, D. J., Low, F. N.: The ependymal surface of the lateral ventricle of the dog as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Amer. J. Anat.137, 483–489 (1973)Google Scholar
  2. Ariëns-Kappers, J.: Beitrag zur experimentellen Untersuchung von Funktion und Herkunft der Kolmerschen Zellen des Plexus chorioideus beim Axolotl und Meerschweinchen. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch.117, 1–19 (1953)Google Scholar
  3. Bleier, R., Albrecht, R., Cruce, J. A. F.: Supraependymal cells of hypothalamic third ventricle: Identification as resident phagocytes of the brain. Science189, 299–301 (1975)Google Scholar
  4. Bruni, J. E., Montemurro, D. G., Clattenburg, R. E., Singh, R. P.: A scanning electron microscopic study of the ependymal surface of the third ventricle of the rabbit, rat, mouse and human brain. Anat. Rec.174, 407–420 (1972)Google Scholar
  5. Carpenter, S. J., McCarthy, L. E., Borison, H. L.: Electron microscopic study on the epiplexus (Kolmer) cells of the cat choroid plexus. Z. Zellforsch.110, 471–486 (1970)Google Scholar
  6. Coates, P. W.: Supraependymal cells: light and transmission electron microscopy extends scanning electron microscopic demonstration. Brain Res.57, 502–507 (1973)Google Scholar
  7. Hosoya, Y., Fujita, T.: Scanning electron microscope observation of intraventricular macrophages (Kolmer cells) in the rat brain. Arch. histol. jap.35, 133–140 (1973)Google Scholar
  8. Karnovsky, M. J.: A formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative of high osmolality for use in electron microscopy, abstracted. J. Cell Biol.27, 137 A (1965)Google Scholar
  9. McLone, D. G., Bondareff, W., Raimondi, A. J.: Brain edema in the hydrocephalic hy-3 mouse: submicroscopic morphology. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.30, 627–637 (1971)Google Scholar
  10. Milhorat, T. H., Clark, R. G., Hammock, M. K., McGrath, P. P.: Structural, ultrastructural and permeability changes in the ependyma and surrounding brain favoring equilibration in progressive hydrocephalus. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.)22, 397–407 (1970)Google Scholar
  11. Nielsen, S. L., Gauger, G. E.: Experimental hydrocephalus: surface alterations of the lateral ventricle. Lab. Invest.30, 618–625 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. Noack, W., Dumitrescu, L., Schweichel, J. U.: Scanning and electron microscopical investigations of the surface structures of the lateral ventricles in the cat. Brain Res.46, 121–129 (1972)Google Scholar
  13. Page, R. B.: Scanning electron microscopy of the ventricular system in normal and hydrocephalic rabbits. J. Neurosurg.42, 646–664 (1975)Google Scholar
  14. Peters, A.: The surface fine structure of the choroid plexus and ependymal lining of the rat lateral ventricle. J. Neurocytol.3, 99–108 (1974)Google Scholar
  15. Scott, D. E., Kozlowski, G. P., Paull, W. K., Ramalingam, S., Krobisch-Dudley, G.: Scanning electron microscopy of the human cerebral ventricular system. II. The fourth ventricle. Z. Zellforsch.139, 61–68 (1973a)Google Scholar
  16. Scott, D. E., Kozlowski, G. P., Sheridan, M. N.: Scanning electron microscopy in the ultrastructural analysis of the mammalian cerebral ventricular system. Int. Rev. Cytol.37, 349–389 (1973b)Google Scholar
  17. Sturm, K. W., Lindenfelser, R., Burchard, W. G.: The surface of cerebral ventricles after experimental inflammation. A study by scanning electron microscope. VIIth int. Congr. Neuropath. 1974, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  18. Weindl, A., Joynt, R. J.: Ultrastructure of the ventricular walls. Three-dimensional study of regional specialization. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.)26, 420–427 (1972)Google Scholar
  19. Weller, R. O., Wiśniewski, H.: Histological and ultrastructural changes with experimental hydrocephalus in adult rabbits. Brain92, 819–828 (1969)Google Scholar
  20. Westergaard, E.: The fine structure of nerve fibers and endings in the lateral cerebral ventricles of the rat. J. comp. Neurol.144, 345–354 (1972)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. G. Go
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. Stokroos
    • 1
  • E. H. Blaauw
    • 1
  • F. Zuiderveen
    • 1
  • I. Molenaar
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Neurosurgery and of Medical Electron MicroscopyUniversity of GroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Kliniek voor Neuro-ChirurgieAcademisch Ziekenhuis GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations