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Solar Physics

, Volume 157, Issue 1–2, pp 375–387 | Cite as

Aspects of the long-term cosmic-ray modulation

I.Solar-cycle ascending phases and associated green corona features
  • M. Storini
  • O. Borello-Filisetti
  • V. Mussino
  • M. Parisi
  • J. Sýkora
Article

Abstract

To investigate the long-term modulation of galactic cosmic rays at the ground-based detector energies, the monthly values of the neutron monitor (Climax, Mt. Washington, Deep River, and Huancayo) and ionization chamber (Cheltenham/Fredericksburg, Huancayo, and Yakutsk) intensities have been correlated with the sunspot numbers (used as a proxy index for transient solar activity) for each phase of sunspot cycles 18 to 22. Systematic differences are found for results concerning odd and even sunspot cycles. During odd cycles (19 and 21) the onset time of cosmic-ray modulation is delayed when compared with the onset time of the sunspot cycle, while they are more similar during even (18, 20, and 22) cycles. Checking the green corona data, on a half-year basis, we found typical heliolatitudinal differences during ascending phases of consecutive sunspot cycles. This finding suggests a significant role of the latitudinal coronal behaviour in the heliospherical dynamics during a Hale cycle. Such effectiveness concerns not only the transient interplanetary perturbations but also the recurrent ones. In fact, when lag between cosmic-ray data and sunspot numbers is considered, the anticorrelation between both parameters is very high (correlation coefficient |r| > 0.9) for all the phases considered, except for the declining ones of cycles 20 and 21, when high-speed solar wind streams coming from coronal holes affect the cosmic-ray propagation, and theRz parameter is no longer the right proxy index for solar-induced effects in the interplanetary medium.

Keywords

Coronal Hole Sunspot Number Neutron Monitor Sunspot Cycle Solar Wind Stream 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Storini
    • 1
  • O. Borello-Filisetti
    • 2
  • V. Mussino
    • 2
  • M. Parisi
    • 3
  • J. Sýkora
    • 4
  1. 1.Cosmic Ray SectionI.F.S.I./C.N.R., c/o Department of Physics, La Sapienza UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Physics-PolitecnicoTurinItaly
  3. 3.III University of Rome, c/o Department of Physics, La Sapienza UniversityRomeItaly
  4. 4.Slovak Academy of SciencesAstronomical InstituteTatranská LomnicaSlovak Republic

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