Skip to main content

Transdermal delivery of nicotine in normal human volunteers: a single dose and multiple dose study


The absorption of nicotine delivered by a transdermal delivery system (TDS) was investigated in two separate studies, (A) a dose proportionality study and (B) a multiple dose study.

In the dose range of 15–60 mg nicotine, the AUC and Cmax values were proportional to the dose. The levels achieved were in the same range as reported in smokers, following absorption from nicotine chewing gum. The TDS used in the present study produced sustained levels of nicotine for 24 h. No significant accumulation of nicotine was evident as a result of multiple dose administration using a 30-mg nicotine patch. Absorption of nicotine from the TDS was 80–90% and the rate of delivery was similar during both studies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Department of Health and Human Services (1983) The health consequences of smoking: Cardiovascular disease. A report of the surgeon general, Rockville

  2. Russell MAH, Jarvis MJ, Sutherland G, Feyerabend C (1987) Nicotine replacement in smoking cessation. J Am Med Assoc 257: 3262–3265

    Google Scholar 

  3. Hughes JR, Miller SA (1984) Nicotine gums to help stop smoking. J Am Med Assoc 252: 2855–2858

    Google Scholar 

  4. Svensson CK (1987) Clinical pharmacokinetics on nicotine. Clin Pharmacokinet 12: 30–40

    Google Scholar 

  5. Hughes JR, Hatsukami DK, Pickens RW, Krahn D, Malin S, Luknic A (1984) Effect of nicotine gum on the tobacco with-drawal syndrome. Psychopharmacology 83: 82–87

    Google Scholar 

  6. Rose JE, Jarvik ME, Rose KD (1984) Transdermal administration of nicotine. Drug Alcohol Depend 13: 209–213

    Google Scholar 

  7. Rose JE, Herskovic JE, Trilling Y, Jarvik ME (1985) Transdermal nicotine reduces cigarette craving and nicotine preference. Clin Pharmacol Ther 38: 450–456

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hopkins R, Wood LE, Sinclair NM (1984) Evaluation of methods to estimate cigarette smoke uptake. Clin Pharmacol Ther 36: 788–795

    Google Scholar 

  9. Curvall M, Kazemi-Vala E, Enzell CR (1982) Simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine in plasma using capillary column gas chromatography with nitrogen sensitive detection. J Chromatogr 232: 293–293

    Google Scholar 

  10. Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL (1981) Improved gas chromatographic method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in biological fluids. J Chromatogr 222: 61–70

    Google Scholar 

  11. Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Herning RF, Jacob P, Jones RT (1983) Smokers of low-yield cigarettes do not consume less nicotine. N Engl J Med 309: 139–142

    Google Scholar 

  12. Rosenberg J, Benowitz MD, Peyton J, Wilson KM (1980) Disposition kinetics and effects of intravenous nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28: 517–522

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kyerematen G, Augustine K (1982) Effects of tobacco use on the disposition of nicotine and its major metabolites. Diss Abstr Int 43: 3203B-3204B

    Google Scholar 

  14. Russell MAH, Feyerabend C (1987) Cigarette Smoking: A Dependence on High-Nicotine Boli. Drug Metab Rev 8: 29–57

    Google Scholar 

  15. Russell MAH, Feyerabend C, Cole PV (1976) Plasma nicotine levels after cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum. Br Med J 1: 1043–1046

    Google Scholar 

  16. Drug Information (1987) American Hospital Formulary Service. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, pp 804–808

  17. Holford NHG, Paton DM (1985) Transdermal systems in principle and in practice. Med Progr, pp 9–12

  18. Schievelbein H (1984) Nicotine resorption and fate. In: Balfour DJK (ed) Nicotine and the tobacco smoking habit. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 1–15

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bannon, Y.B., Corish, J., Corrigan, O.I. et al. Transdermal delivery of nicotine in normal human volunteers: a single dose and multiple dose study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 37, 285–290 (1989).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • nicotine
  • transdermal delivery
  • dose proportionality
  • pharmacokinetics