Effect of rare-earth metals on cold brittleness and temper brittleness of structural steels
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Small additions of REM (0.1–0.15%) to structural steels have no essential effect on the ductile-brittle transition temperature after quenching and tempering or embrittling treatment.
Alloying of structural steels with large quantities of REM (0.4–0.65%) shifts the ductile-brittle transition temperature to lower temperatures and practically eliminates susceptibility to reversible temper brittleness.
REM does not enter into the solid solution and does not enrich the grain boundaries but is found only in nonmetallic inclusions.
The main reason for the substantial reduction of the ductile-brittle transition temperature of steels alloyed with REM is that REM combines harmful impurities (phosphorus and its analogues) in nonmetallic inclusions.
KeywordsPhosphorus Solid Solution Brittleness Transition Temperature Substantial Reduction
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