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Journal of Low Temperature Physics

, Volume 11, Issue 3–4, pp 363–394 | Cite as

Thermal conductivity and isotopic impurities in single crystals of helium

  • D. T. Lawson
  • H. A. Fairbank
Article

Abstract

We have utilized the enhancement of thermal conductivity by Poiseuille flow of the phonon gas to obtain highly sensitive measurements of phonon scattering by isotopic impurities in single crystals of helium. Crystal orientation, size, and quality may be inferred from the thermal conductivity data themselves. Our hcp 4 He crystals were grown at a constant pressure of 85.1 atm using apparatus and techniques that made possible some control over crystal orientation. An isotopic impurity concentration of 1.0×105 decreases the peak conductivity in these crystals by a factor of 1.9 along a direction perpendicular to thec axis. In the Poiseuille region a relaxation time limit has been achieved experimentally that allows our data to be fitted as a function of temperature and concentration with only one parameter. The observed scattering strength is a factor of 2.7 greater than can be explained in terms of mass-defect scattering alone. A number of current theories are examined in the light of this result. Our pure 4 He data strongly support aT−3 dependence for the normal-process relaxation time. Measurements of the thermal conductivity parallel to thec axis reveal no anisotropy in either the normal-process relaxation time or the isotopic scattering strength.

Keywords

Anisotropy Thermal Conductivity Helium Sensitive Measurement Crystal Orientation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. T. Lawson
    • 1
  • H. A. Fairbank
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsDuke UniversityDurham

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