Vacuum carbidization of transition metals of groups IV and V
We investigated vacuum carbidization of transition metals of group IV (titanium, zirconium, hafnium) and group V (vanadium, niobium, tantalum). We found that the optimal processing temperatures for a high-quality case tightly adherent to the base metal are as follows: titanium, 1300°C; zirconium, 1400°C; hafnium, 1100°C; vanadium, 1300°C; niobium, 1400°C; and tantalum, 1600°C.
It was found that the case usually consists of two phases on metals of group V, which agrees with the respective phase diagrams. The thickness of each phase is proportional to the width of the homogenous region on the phase diagram, which indicates approximately equal diffusion rates of carbon in these phases.
The characteristic acicular structure of the case on vanadium is due to the crystallographic direction of the diffusion of carbon in V2C.
KeywordsTitanium Zirconium Phase Diagram Vanadium Niobium
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