Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 332–377 | Cite as

Electronic imaging devices in astronomy

  • George R. Carruthers
Article

Abstract

electronic imaging devices combine many of the best features of conventional photography and photoelectric photometry, and hence are coming into wide usage in astronomy. Presented are the basic physical principles of these devices, and descriptions of the types of devices currently in use or under development, classified into two categories: those which produce a final image on film, as does conventional photography, and those which produce a television signal output. Criteria for device selection are discussed, and some typical examples of the application of these devices in astronomy and related areas are given.

Keywords

Photography Good Feature Related Area Electronic Imaging Physical Principle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Wilcock, W. L. and Baum, W. A.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Academic Press, New York, p. 383.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Baum, W. A.: 1969,fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 283 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 753.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Lowrance, J. L. and Zucchino, P. M.: 1969,fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 851.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Soule, H. V.: 1968,Electro-Optical Photography at Low Illumination Levels, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Baum, W. A.: 1962,Stars and Stellar Systems 2, 1.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Zworykin, V. K. and Ramberg, E. G.: 1949,Photoelectricity and Its Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, Ch. 1.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    sommer, A. H.: 1968,Photoemissive Materials, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Sommer, A. H. and Spicer, W. E.: 1965,Photoelectronic Materials and Devices, D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, p. 175.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Chart published by Electro-Mechanical Research Inc., Photoelectric Division, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Carruthers, G. R.: 1969,Appl. Opt. 8, 633.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Duckett, S. W. and Metzger, P. H.: 1965,Phys. Rev. 137, A953.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Metzger, P. H.: 1965,J. Chem Phys. Solids 26, 1879.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Lukirskii, A. P., Rumsh, M. A., and Smirnov, L. A.: 1960a,Opt. Spectr. 9, 265.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Lukirskii, A. P., Rumsh, M. A., and Smirnov, L. A.: 1960b,Opt. Spectr. 9, 343.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Schagen, P. and Turnbull, A. A.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics p. 393.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Engstrom, R. W. and Rodgers, R. L.: 1971,Opt. Spectra 5, 26.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Folkes, J. R.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-electronic Image Devices, vol. 16 in the series: Advances in electronics and Electron Physics p. 325.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Wheeler, B. E. and Emberson, C. J.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics p. 51.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    McGee, J. D., Airey, R. W., and Varma, B. P.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in electronics and Electronics and Electron Physics p. 89.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Hiltner, W. A., and Niklas, W. F.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics p. 37.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Needhorn, M. J. and Thumwood, R. F.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 129.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Zworykin, v. K., and Ramberg, E. G.:Op. cit., Ch. 9.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Paszkowski, B.: 1968,Electron Optics, American Elsevier, New York, Ch. 6.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Beurle, R. L. and Wreathall, W. M.: 1962,Electron Optics, American Elsevier, New York, p. 333.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Baum, W. A.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 617.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    McGee, J. D., McMullan, D., Bacik, H., and Oliver, M.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 61.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Lallemand, A., Duchesne, M., and Wlerick, G.: 1960,First Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 12 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 5.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    McGee, J. D., Khogali, A., Ganson, A., and Baum, W. A.: 1962,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 11.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Kahan, E. and Cohen, M.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 725.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Kron, G.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 25.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Kron, G. E., Ables, H. D., and Hewitt, A. V.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 1.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Harris, L.: 1955,J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 27.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Hauser, V. and Kerler, W.: 1958,Rev. Sci. Inst. 29, 380.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Hiltner, W. A. and Pesch, P.: 1960,First Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 12, in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. XII, p. 17.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Hall, J. S., Ford, W. K., and Baum, W. A.: 1960,First Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 12 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 21.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    McGee, J. D. and Wheeler, B. E.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 47.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Walker, M. F.: 1969,fourth Symposium on Photo-electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 773.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Charts and technical literature published by International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., Electron Tube Division.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Beesley, J. and Norman, D. J.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 551.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Feldman, C. and O'Hara, M.: 1957,J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 300.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    McGee, J. D., Airey, R. W., and Aslam, M.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 571.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Zacharov, B. and Dowden, S.: 1960,First Symposium on Photo-electronic Image Devices, Vol. 12 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 31.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    McGee, J. D., Airey, R. W., and Wheeler, B. E.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 61.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Kapany, N. S.: 1967,Fiber Optics, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Collings, P. R., Beyer, R. R., Kalafut, J. S., and Goetze, G. W.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 105.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Emberson, D. L. and Long, B. E. 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 119.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    McGee, J. D., Airey, R. W., Aslam, M., Powell, J. R., and Catchpole, C. E.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 113.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Stoudenheimer, R. G.: 1960,First Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 12 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 41.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Wachtel, M. M., Doughty, D. D., and Anderson, A. E.: 1960,first Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 12 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 59.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Emberson, D. L., Todkill, A., and Wilcock, W. L.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 127.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Emberson, D. L.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 129.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Goetze, G. W.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 145.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Manley, B. W., Guest, A., and Holmshaw, R. T.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 471.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Adams, J.: 1969,Electro-Optical Systems Design 1, 46.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Technical literature published by International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., Electron Tube Division.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    McGee, J. D.: 1962,Astronomical Techniques, Vol II in the series:Stars and Stellar Systems, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 302.Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Bube, R. H.: 1965, in (ed.),Photoelectronic Materials and Devices, D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, p. 100.Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Heimann, W. and Kunze, C.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 217.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Hori, H., Tsuji, S., and Kiuchi, Y.: 1969,Fourth symposium on Photo-Electronic Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 253.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Schultz, M. L. and Morton, G. A.: 1965,Photoelectronic Materials and Devices, D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, p. 140.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Boksenberg, A.: 1971, inAstronomical Use of Television-Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256, p. 77.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Mende, S. B.: 1971, inAstronomical Use of Television-Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256, p. 85.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Carruthers, G. R.: 1971, inAstronomical Use of Television-Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256, p. 109.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Goetze, G. W.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 219.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Boerio, A. H., Beyer, R. R., and Goetze, G. W.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 229.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Bayer, R. R. and Goetze, G. W.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 241.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Doughty, D. D.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 261.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Goetze, G. W. and Boerio, A. H.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 159.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Green, M. and Hansen, J. R.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol 28B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 807.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Blake, J. and Burtt, R. B.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 213.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Barton, G. G.: 1961, inProceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium (Ft. Belvoir, Virginia), NASA SP-2, p. 173.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Cope, A. D.: 1961, inProceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium (Ft. Belvoir, Virginia), NASA SP-2, p. 43.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Cope, A. D. and Luedicke, E.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 175.Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Nelson, P. D.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 209.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Walker, M. F.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 341.Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Walker, M. F.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 761.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Rosch, J., Wlerick, G. and Boussuge, C.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 357.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Wlerick, G., Rosch, J., Dupre, M., and Bellier, M.: 1962,Second Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 16 in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electronic Physics, p. 371.Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Kron, G. E.: 1971, inAstronomical Use of Television-Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256, p. 207.Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    Hynek, J. A., Bakos, G., Dunlap, J., and Powers, W.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 713.Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Flory, L. E., Pike, W. A., Morgan, J. M., and Boyer, L. A.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 885.Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Hicks, G. T. and Davis, T. N.: 1965,Appl. Opt. 4, 187.Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Miller, J. S. and Wampler, E. J.: 1969,Nature 221, 1037.Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Davis, R. J.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 713.Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Davis, R. J.: 1986,The Celescope Experiment, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special Report 282.Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Brueckner, G. E. and Tucker, B. J.: 1971, inAstronomical Use of Television-Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256, p. 55.Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Smyth, M. J. and Brand, P. W. J. L.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 737.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Wheeler, B. E. and Emberson, C. J.: 1966,Third Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 22A in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 51.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Kahan, E. and Cohen, M.: 1969,Fourth Symposium on Photo-Electronic Image Devices, Vol. 28B in the series: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, p. 725.Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Hutter, E. C.: 1963, inLight and Heat Sensing Agardograph 71, Pergamon Press, New York, p. 31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • George R. Carruthers
    • 1
  1. 1.Naval Research LaboratoryE. O. Hulburt Center for Space researchWashington, D.C.USA

Personalised recommendations