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Journal of Solution Chemistry

, Volume 6, Issue 12, pp 781–818 | Cite as

The hydration of anions in nonaqueous media

  • Edward M. Arnett
  • B. Chawla
  • N. J. Hornung
Article

Abstract

A very simple isopiestic method based on that of S. Christian is used for measuring the salting-in of water into nonpolar, low-volatility solvents by tetraalkylammonium salts. The quantity of excess water which is dissolved in such solvents is directly proportional to the salt concentration and is sharply dependent on the nature of the anion but is nearly insensitive to that of the R4N+ cation. The hydration ratioH, which we define as the moles of excess solubilized water per mole of R4N+ X, is directly relatable to the enthalpy of hydration of the anion X in several solvents and in the gas phase. The quantityH is also correlated with many free-energy terms including those for the Hofmeister lyotropic series, for the ability of the anions to salt nonelectrolytes out of water, for the free-energy terms for separation of these ions by reverse osmosis membranes, and for their nucleophilicities. A surprising (but not unprecedented) feature of the hydration ratio is that it, rather than its logarithm, behaves as a free-energy term. It is proposed that all these properties have in common the free energy of hydration of the anions, and this notion is supported by a close correspondence between the anionic hydration ratio and their hydrogen-bonding energies with proton donors in aprotic solvents. The results support scattered observations by other workers that isolated water molecules do not have an unusual inherent affinity for anions. Accordingly, large anionic hydration energies in bulk aqueous media reflect extensive cooperative interactions in the solvent. Implications for nucleophilic activity in phase transfer catalysis and enzyme activity are mentioned.

Key words

Isopiestic method salting-in of water tetraalkylammonium salts enthalpy of hydration free-energy terms Hofmeister lyotropic series nonelectrolytes reverse osmosis membranes nucleophilicites aprotic solvents 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward M. Arnett
    • 1
  • B. Chawla
    • 1
  • N. J. Hornung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburgh

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