Journal of Solution Chemistry

, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 791–804 | Cite as

Chemical data for steam generating cycles

  • Otakar Jonas
Article

Abstract

This review paper presents background information, rationale, and a description of the current and future use of chemical thermodynamic and kinetic data in the design, operation, and troubleshooting of utility and industrial steam generating equipment. Understanding and use of high temperature solution chemistry is needed to avoid scale and deposit formation (concentration of chemical impurities from low ppb and ppm levels in water and steam) and corrosion.

Based on the chemical analyses of scales on heat exchange surfaces of boilers, steam generators, reactors, and in deposits from steam turbines, and on analyses of corrosion problems, the chemical species of interest have been identified and new observations relating to high temperature chemistry listed. Chemical compounds for which data are urgently needed include combinations of major cations and anions, mostly as mixtures, at concentrations from ppb to percent. The data should cover the temperature range from room temperature to 650°C and the pressure range from 0 to 41 MPa. The data would be used to determine the local electrochemical and corrosion conditions at metal surfaces of major cycle components for determination of water and steam chemistry control limits, and for corrosion testing and material selection.

Key Words

Chemical thermodynamic data kinetic water steam activity solubility volatility vapor pressure pH phase equilibria hydrolysis hydration zeta potential redox surface tension steam generation boilers reactors turbines 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otakar Jonas
    • 1
  1. 1.Jonas, Inc., ConsultantsWilmington

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