Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 238, Issue 1, pp 125–130 | Cite as

Symbiotic stars with Wolf-Rayet spectra as protoplanetary nebulae?

  • Harry Nussbaumer


Symbiotic systems, in particular symbiotic novae, have been suggested to be very early stages of planetary nebulae. Some of them have been described as going through a Wolf-Rayet phase. We argue that there may be a direct relation between symbiotic objects and planetary nebulae, and that the Wolf-Rayet phase is connected to an active spell of the hot companion. Symbiotic stars could lead to planetary nebulae with two central stars with different radiation temperatures and luminosities, where each has the power to ionize a planetary nebula on its own.

Key words

Symbiotic stars Wolf-Rayet stars planetary nebulae 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Nussbaumer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of AstronomySwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZürichSwitzerland

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